Chapter 8

Theological and Ethical Perspectives
on Global Communication

Global Cultural War!

The context in which we are speaking about communication is a "cultural war" between the powerful and the people that is waged through political propaganda, commercial advertisements and information technology. This cultural war takes place on both national and global levels assuming the form of ideological or propaganda war. Sometimes it works to domesticate the minds and desires of consumers inducing them to buy things that are produced in order to control and conquer the market. The educational system acts to establish hegemony over the minds of students in the name of socialization. Traditional cultural processes and religious institutions are also mobilized to serve the cause of the powers. The most important aspect of this cultural war, however, is manifested in the modem mass communication media, such as newspapers, wire services, radio and television.

The ideological battles between the two superpowers have been fought through political propaganda against each other (communism vs. capitalism), through ideological inculcation in formal and non-formal education systems, through public media and information processes and often through religious institutions and practices. Now this ideological war seems to be over, but power conflicts, violent or otherwise, will continue to involve semi-ideological battles for legitimacy and support. The communist societies have complete control over the process of political propaganda, but its effectiveness is regarded doubtful in recent years. Societies where a liberal press is allowed have a facade of freedom of speech, but the powers control the media and education in highly effective ways in these societies. Dictatorships around the world have sought to control the speech, thought, feeling and perception of the people. Today this process of control by power is done through high-tech communication and information media; this communication technology is intensive and, therefore, brutally effective.

The economic life of the people is very much affected by communication and information in three basic ways. The struggle for decisions on economic policies involves a fundamental cultural struggle in terms of economic philosophies and economic objectives, such as economic growth and economic distribution. The most direct way in which the economic life of the people is swayed is through commercial advertisements in the communication media. The media is the chief culprit in consumerism, which corrodes the minds of the people with enticements to embrace cheap materialism and economic hedonism.

Moreover, information has become a commodity and service in economic transactions, for information is both power and resource. The information and communication network constitutes the webwork of people’s economic and socio-cultural life as well, and the powers create, expand and sustain this network of information and communication on a global scale.

There are three interrelated networks that operate on a global scale. The political and military intelligence and information network of governments, the economic network of information of transnational corporate powers and the religious-cultural networks of world religions have a powerful influence over information and communication globally.

The term "international information and communication order" is a misnomer which does not reflect the reality of the present communication and information process nationally and internationally, although the McBride Report has clearly shown the nature of the international information and communication order that is dominated by the powerful. The process of information and communication is not merely the objective order of society and community; it also penetrates into the mind and brain of the human person, into the perceptual apparatus of the body and into the heart and soul of the whole human being. The information and communication process pervades the human self. The battleground is the consciousness, mind, senses, heart and spirit of the human person as well as the community.

We would like to discuss three interrelated issues in dealing with our subject. The first is communication and information in relation to the people as the subject of history and in relation to the power that dominates the people. The second issue is a theological reflection on communication. Third is the issue of fundamental principles that will guide the practice of communication and information action.

II. The People as the Subject of History and Communication

We are accustomed to analyzing the communication and information order without explicit reference to the people and to power, making it neutral in political terms. Communication and information is of the people, by the people and for the people. This means that the people are the subject of information and communication. When information and communication are dominated by the powers-that-be, the people as the subject of information and communication are violated.

The most original form of communication is the telling and hearing of stories in the community of the people. The story is in the form of communication in which the teller and hearer are subjects, not objects. Communication is the sharing of stories of the people among themselves. The cumulation and interweaving of such stories forms cultures of the people and their communities. No other forms of communication can replace this original mode; other forms of communication can only supplement the original form.

In the original story of the people, all the powers and authorities take the position of antagonists, for the people are in the position of protagonists. The people are subjects of the story in terms of content as well as in communication. The traditional religious and cultural stories of the people are prime examples of their original story. The story of the Hebrews in the Exodus and its counterparts or equivalents in Asian religions are concrete manifestations of the original story of the people. For this reason, the religio-cultural stories are co- opted by the powerful and are twisted into authoritarian stories in which the people are turned into objects of subjugation.

III. Communication and Information Dominated by the Powers-That-Be

The McBride Report disclosed the domination of the international communication and information order by the Western media, which are cultural manifestations of the Western powers. The breakdown of the socialist states has shown the dimension and process of their subversion by the Western media, and the Gulf War is one example in which war and peace have been affected by the Western powers through the media.

The globalization of communication and information has become technetronics-intensive through high-media technology on all levels. Symbols, images and pictures in full color and simultaneously translated languages as well as scenarios and sequences of events are instantly transmitted to the people, who are turned into the victims of this global communication onslaught. Technetronics-intensive communication and information involves the global network of value-adding processes with increasing acceleration in intensity and speed. Such a global network of communication increasingly encircles the life of the people; it envelops their perceptions and understanding; it finally invades the innermost chamber of consciousness, the minds and hearts of the people, deeply affecting their spirit as well as their life.

The most important consequence of this communication and information revolution being carried out through high-tech development is the subjugation of the spirit, mind, will, heart, passion and even desire of the people to the dictates of the dominant powers, near and remote. Human subjectivity, which is the engine of human life, is the final territory being conquered through cultural processes of communication and information. Western development of modern science and technology in the past has excluded the human subject from the epistemological world, and now its advancement allows the powers to dominate human subjectivity to domesticate life itself.

This domination is manifested in political and ideological control and manipulation, domestically and internationally. It involves the total planning and control of the market. This capacity to subjugate human subjectivity on a mass scale is used to manage social, political and military conflicts on both domestic and international levels. This becomes the case because of symbiotic relations of power between the public media and the political powers in which the people’s participation is prevented. Such power relations are complex and difficult to discern, but government propaganda, the use of the media for the implementation of political power and policy and election campaigns are clear manifestatior.s of such a symbiosis.

The domination by Western political power, especially the United States, and the West-dominated international communication cj-Jer with its dominant network of information industry, wire services, satellite communication, etc., makes a powerful impact upon the peoples in Asia by interlocking with the Asian national communication media and by subverting these on political, economic and cultural levels.

The economic powers, such as giant transnational corporations (TNCs), use the public media to dominate and control the market, to create arbitrary needs among consumers causing a deep sense of deprivation and covering up the ugly image of the corporate powers. There is no marketing without the media, and the advertisement of products and services creates false and unsound economic propaganda, often providing false information and images about the products and services. This process distorts sound economic values, fostering "cheap and pragmatic materialism."

The media serves corporate powers’ techno-structures to implement the total planning strategy of profit maximization by controlling marketing as well as production. Without such a subservient media, the corporate strategy of total planning would not be possible. The people as workers and consumers are molded according to the plan of the economic powers in and through the media; the people have lost their subjecthood in production as well as in the market; they have become victims of the distorted information imposed on them and have an inverted self-image implanted in their consciousness by the media.

In the same way, the transnational corporate structures have pervaded all Asian societies to subjugate economic selfhood, not only in economic political terms, but also in cultural terms through their economic propagandistic advertisements. This has destroyed the health and wholesome vision of economic life of the Asian people.

The Asian national media under the influence of the Western-dominated global information and communication order with its Western values and lifestyles have corroded and subverted Asian cultural values and Asian styles of life, particularly the cultural identity of Asians has been suppressed. Asia’s religious and cultural heritages are disparaged as preor anti-modern (meaning anti-Western); the languages, symbols and images of Asia are suppressed and replaced by Western ones.

This process causes profound cultural dissatisfaction among the people, even to the point of unhealthy national and cultural romanticism and nostalgia. The people’s uprootedness is caused by the mass media, which receives heavy doses of Western cultural injections through the present international information and communication order. This cultural corrosion and subversion and even "genocide" are a tragic part of the cultural subjugation of the people through the global media dominated by the Western powers, a process that is inevitable given the inherent character of the present global order of information and communication which excludes the participation of the people, their dialog and interaction.

IV. The "Necessary Illusion" of a Free Press

With the demise of socialist dictatorships and authoritarian powers, freedom is much celebrated, and there is a prevailing sense of history that liberal democracy has finally won. There is a celebration that the people under totalitarian and authoritarian dictatorships have become free subjects.

People who are connected with the Western liberal media believe that a free press can be free of domination and control by the powerful, be it political, military or economic powers. The Western media is regarded as free of control and domination by others, and it is true that there is a certain degree of freedom from the dominant powers in so far as the media itself is a power that has a capacity to balance other sectors of power.

However, the fact that the Western media is a dominant power is implied in its capacity to balance other political, military and economic sectors of the dominant powers. So long as the Western media is a sector of the dominant power constellations of the Western powers, it serves the interests of the Western powers as it balances other sectors of the same power constellation. Thus, the belief that the Western media is free is an illusion, which is a necessary self-justification in a liberal society. The Western media cannot balance the government, the military and economic powers in absolute terms but only in relative terms to the extent that the power of the Western media is secured. This is particularly the case in the United States. Objectivity, balance and truthfulness of information are always claimed as the final measure of a free and fair media, but the terms of reference are culturally and ideologically oriented towards the Western powers.

The power of the Western media violates the rights of the people in their own society, and often the people have no means to redress these violations. It also violates the cultural and ethnic rights of the people in the world. It promotes Western racial, cultural and religious values and inherently dismisses the value of the racial, cultural and religious heritages of the other peoples of the world.

Disinformation and misinformation, partial truths and small lies and sheer ignorance and prejudice are mingled and spread in the process of communication and information in various ways in different situations. These phenomena are directed against the oppositional forces of the people in both liberal societies and dictatorial societies, in their conduct of international policies as well as in domestic affairs. The whole process serves the power interests of the powerful.

When the Western media criticized the dictatorial powers in the Third World for their violation of human rights and dictatorial control of the media, this was regarded by these Third World powers as hypocritical behavior, infringement of their national sovereignty or interference in their internal affairs.

In recent years, certain democratic reforms are being promoted in the Third World by the Western powers so that these same Western powers can directly intervene in the Third World through the investment and trade of TNCs, through political pressure in such areas as human rights and especially through the Western media. The introduction of "liberal democratic reforms" opens Third and Second World societies to more direct penetration of those societies by the Western media as well as by Western market forces. Thus, the Western media of communication and information become instruments of a "low intensity strategy" in the arena of "cultural domination and war."

The communication and information media construct a strange world out of arbitrary and superficial combinations of colors, images and languages that are simplified and separated from reality. The perceptual world thus created has no relation to the real world; it is rather in opposition to the actual world. However, this strange new world of illusion occupies the minds and’ hearts of the people everywhere.

In this way, the peoples of Asia are victims of the powers militarily, politically, socially, economically and culturally; and the international media networks constitute an integral dimension of the victimization process as the cultural power of domination that victimizes the people culturally.

V. Stereotyping the’People’s Movements, Including the Ecumenical Movement

One of the outstanding examples of the low intensity strategy through the media against the people and their communities when they struggle against the powers is the case of stereotyping the ecumenical movement as an enemy of the powers. In a similar way, the political and social movements of the people are depicted and stereotyped as enemies. Often leaders of the peoples’ movements are attacked and tried in the media, before and outside of the juridical process. Racial and ethnic as well as religious communities are often targets of media attacks and media manipulation.

People of low social class or status are stereotyped as second- class humans in religious and cultural terms as well as in socio- economic terms. Low and outcaste people are perpetually condemned to such reinforced traditional stereotypes, their human dignity and subjecthood mutilated by society.

The stories of the people in Asia, past and present, are full of old and new stereotypes, for example, women as non-persons, inferior beings and sex objects. The Chinese are Charlie Chans; Koreans are Chos~jins ~to the Japanese); the Vietnamese are gooks and so on. More modern stereotypes include the Asian people as "esthetic, contemplative and intuitive," meaning incapable of rational thinking; Asians as people prone to authoritarianism and, therefore, incapable of democracy; the poor and oppressed as unreasonable or violent; and outcaste people as dirty and ignorant. The ethnic, national, racial, religious and cultural minorities are subject to old and new stereotypes in their own situations as political or social separatists. The Christian West also has its prejudices and stereotypes against people who believe in Asian religions. These false images and stereotypes are powerfully and subtly projected in the global communications media.

In all these areas, the communication and information media play the role of supporting the powerful in the final analysis, and they victimize the peoples in Asia as well as in other parts of the world, including the people in the West.

VI. Communication for Participation and Solidarity of the People

The people as subjects of history have always struggled to overcome the domineering communication and information process. The people create their own ways of communication, ranging from stories in oral traditions to folk art and music, from popular histories to religious and cultural symbolism. The history of the popular communication of the people has not been thoroughly investigated, just as the cultural history of the people has not been written from the people’s perspective. Traditionally the communication process of the people is suppressed by that of the powerful rulers who have controlled the message and media through ruling elites and have established cultural and religious institutions. Nevertheless, the people’s ways and means of communication have not been completely suppressed. The people assert their subjecthood in communication through various forms of expression and with ingenious creativity. The rise and development of the people’s movements have usually been accompanied by a new and creative communication process, which is often closely associated with popular religious communities.

Originally, the sacred books of the religious communities among the people rose as a new way of communication among the people with new messages to them. The stories and writings of the T’aiping Movement in China and the Tonghak in Korea as well as similar movements in other Asian countries are manifestations of a new communication paradigm among the people. The Bible is the example par excellence.

The main feature of such communication of and by the people is their direct participation in the communication process and the immediacy of the message without long mediation; another characteristic is the bonding of a new and liberating community, that is, the wholistic solidarity of the people. This implies three fundamental characteristics of genuine communication: immediate participation, solidarity and liberation.

The Bible is a book of communication among those who call themselves the people of God or the people of the Messiah. Therefore, we will seek to discern from the Bible a paradigm of communication among the people.

The Hebrew (Hap’iru) people and their descendants lived under empires throughout the ages, such as ancient Egypt, Babylon, Assyria, Greece and Rome and their vassals. This meant that they lived under the imperial communication order of the ancient empires.

The classical account is the Tower of Babel. The imperial project of building the Tower of Babel required, among many things, a monolingual communication (command) system. This meant suppression of all languages and cultures of nations and peoples for their integration into one imperial language. This is the language and communication of imperial domination, a paradigm wl~iich fundamentally holds true in all imperial situations, even today.

The counterparadigm of such communication is the Biblical communication of the people of God. When they were filled with the Spirit, the paradigm of imperial communication was replaced with the communication of the people of God, which is illustrated in the Pentecost experience. At Pentecost, thepeople with different languages spoke and heard the message of God in their own languages, which meant the creation of new koinonia (participation), a new household (oikonomia), a new identity as a people of God (a new culture) and a new community (new solidarity).

Thus, the movement of the Spirit means freedom and liberation of the people from the oppressive languages and communication of the powers. The Spirit creates the liberating communication to overcome cultural domination. The Spirit is against the law of dominating communication.

The Bible has several genres of communication, being itself the major communication medium among the people of God throughout their history. It is a story of the people and an account of events. It contains various forms of communication and contents. The first is the communication of God’s promise for a new future and the vision of this future over the imperial order. The story of the Creation (Gen. I and 2), the vision of the Messianic Reign (Isa. II, Rev. 21 and 22) and other apocalyptic visions belong to this category - the communication of the vision among the people living under imperial powers. The content of the communication of the vision is the Messianic Reign in which life and shalom will prevail over the power and violence of death.

This vision is deeply rooted in the story of liberation of the Hebrew people from the imperial despotism of ancient Egypt, that is, the story of the Exodus. The Hebrew slaves cried out in their toil, agony and suffering, and their God Yahweh listened to their cry and knew their pain. God communicated the message of liberation to the people, a message against the pharaoh who refused to release the people. Moses and his company bore the message of liberation among the Hebrew slaves. Thus, the Exodus event materialized in history. Such a vision manifests itself clearly and decisively among the people in the message and movement of Jesus, who gives it the name "Reign" or "Realm of God."

Jesus’ message about the Realm of God is, indeed, the Good News - the Gospel among the Galilee Minjung. His message, teachings and actions as well as His life, death and resurrection are the ultimate communication of God among the people who are subjugated under the powers of death. The people of God become the bearer of the message of God’s Reign - the Gospel among all naŁons.

Communication in the early community of the people of God was the covenant code or the Torah, which means "wisdom and guide." The origin of the covenant codes or the Torah is also the Exodus event in which the people of God were liberated by God and which granted the wisdom of the covenant code to prevent encroachment by the pharaoh’s ideology and religion of oppression, to undercut the vicious bond of slavery and to protect the poor, oppressed, weak and alienated. Literally the Torah of the covenant is the living Word of God spoken among the people and indwelling in the hearts of the people. The Wisdom is an integral part of this second form of Biblical communication.

The third form of communication among the people of God is the prophetic movement under the kings, who are often allied with or influenced by surrounding imperial or despotic powers with domineering communication systems. The classic example is the confrontation between the message of Elijah against King Ahab and Jezebel the Baalist over the destiny of Naboth, the steward of the vineyard. The prophetic movements, led by the major and minor prophets, communicate the message of God’s justice, judgment and promise of shalom among the people who have become subservient to the ideology and religion of the despotic kingdom and the dominant empires. Their communication is that of God’s justice among the people.

Priestly practices and movements are a fourth form of communication with their message of restoration, reconciliation and healing of the community of the people of God and their sharing of the message of shalom. Rites of sacrifice and worship constitute communication for restoration of broken relationships, injured bodies and communities divided by hostility and enmity. The Psalms are an integral part of this communication. As depicted in the letter to the Hebrews, the Prince of Shalom Himself is the sacrificial lamb and at the same time the priest who presides over the sacrifice of reconciliation, forging a new covenant of shalom. This is an act of communication of the peace of God among the people who have become victims of the violence and wars between nations and powers.

The Bible is the book of communication among the people of God. In it the people are the partners of God, who communicates with them through various media, channels or modes of communication. Often the people are hardhearted, refusing to be communication partners with God and with each other. They see but do not see. They hear but do not listen. They are taught but do not understand. This is because they are enslaved in heart, mind and spirit to the messages of the dominant communication apparatus of the powers-that-be.

The Biblical communication, however, is the event of the Word among the people to restore them as partners in communication with God and, therefore, among themselves. God’s message is heard, understood and be-comes the spirit and the power of the people to overcome the power of the communication that enslaves them and turns them into objects of communication.

Biblical communication builds new, faithful relations between God and the people and among the people. In place of domination, enslavement and enmity, new bonds of solidarity are established. Solidarity, as the covenant of faithful relations among the people, is the foundation of a humane community.

VII. Five Columns upon Two Foundations

We regard the two foundations of the household of God as people’s participation and their mutual solidarity. Standing upon these two foundations are the five columns of justice, human dignity, peace, identity and life. We seek to discern these structural elements from the Biblical communication in the context of the present global order of communication and information.

We have already indicated that the sovereign partner of the sovereign God for covenant and communication is the very people of God, not the powers-that-be, who subjugate the people under their ideology and their religion of domination. This is the basis of the people’s participation. We have recognized that the free individual subject in a liberal democracy is a precarious and illusory being in communication as well as in all other areas of power relations. Therefore, the people’s participation should be more than individual freedom as seen in liberal democracy. Participation should mean direct, immediate and effective access by the people to the processes of deciding and relating. Jesus made the people directly accessible to the Realm of God through His communication of the Good News and through the people’s faith that was evoked by His message.

As sovereign partners, the people have newly entered into covenant with God, breaking all their enslaving bonds with the dominating powers. The sharing of new bonds of koinonia, love, justice, peace, hope and life was communicated through the crucifixion of Jesus as the Sacrificial Lamb of the New Covenant. This communication is reenacted in the sacraments of the Baptism and the Holy Supper, both of which are the culmination of the forging of the solidarity bond among the people through Jesus their Messiah.

Paul advised the Galatians about the fundamental truth of the Gospel found in the Baptism: that there is neither "chosen" nor Gentile, neither free nor slave, neitber male nor female and so on. Communication is an act binding the people together as one body, one household, one nation and one people - an act of forging a new covenant among the people.

The people in this covenant are the stewards of their own economic household (oikonomia). We have seen the centrally planned command economies of the socialist states. A chief cause of their failure may have been the lack of people’s participation in the planning and managing of the economy as well as in distribution. Many Third World economies are also centrally planned and controlled according to the dictates of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD).

The giant global corporations are also highly centralized as planning techno-structures. They neither recognize the oikonomia as the common household nor allow the participation of the people. The people are relegated to the position of objects in the big and highly planned projects and are instructed by communication to follow and obey the rules of the dominant economic powers: states or corporate entities.

Communication should awaken the people as autonomous economic subjects, as sovereign stewards of their own life. Self-reliance is not a message of the rich to the dependent poor; it is the people claiming their sovereignty over their household (oikonomia). The people must participate directly in planning and management, in production and distribution and in the market. The people as sovereign users of resources must participate in communication (advertisements) to resist being domesticated as obedient consumers. The people must make direct interventions in the market to fight domination and monopoly since the political process is not working in this direction. It is essential that the people must participate in economic communication to be economically sovereign over their own life.

The celebration of the rise of liberal democracy in the Third World and in Eastern Europe can be a very deceptive political ritual. The political reality is that the people become more powerless than ever to decide their own political life and destiny. The information and communication work of the intelligence agencies is more efficient and pervasive than ever, replacing the use of force. The powers rely heavily upon intelligence, information processes and communication ranging from ideological propaganda to political campaigns, from war management to character assassination of enemies, from political domestication to political control of the people. Information and communication is being used as the primary means to achieve the political objective of domination and control over the people.

The people are deprived of their own means of communication and knowing (information). They become objects of this communication and information process. The people must regain their subjecthood as sovereign partners and participants in the communication and information process, in society and in the world. This demands people’s participation in the existing communication media; it demands counter-communication networks to fight the existing communication and information process. It is also necessary to strengthen the people’s communication network as an alternative communication order that promotes people’s participation and their solidarity linkages across all barriers and boundaries throughout the world. Thus, communication and information with the people’s participation may be one of the primary means to attain the political selfhood of the people, for such communication can overcome the dynamics of domestication and fragmentation of community.

The communication and information process that is dominated by the powerful creates violent conflicts on the social- psychological level as well as on the cultural level. It accentuates and fuels cultural, social and political conflicts in many nations when they serve the interests of the dominant power. Racial, ethnic and religio-cultural and communal conflicts are created through manipulated communication and information processes when it is hoped that these will weaken the enemies of the powers. Most of all, the powers are waging small- and large- scale cultural battles and wars to destroy the enemy in physical, religio-cultural and spiritual terms.

The Biblical paradigm of communication is that of peacemaking, reconciling and enemy-loving. It is the communication of the Prince of Peace who became the victim of the cultural and religious violence of the Roman Empire and its allies. The vision of the Messianic Reign, depicted in Chapter 11 of the prophet Isaiah, is the real vision of peace that has been transmitted to the people of God throughout history.

In the present changing military alliances and moves for global security, there is more danger of intensified violence along the dividing lines of race, ethnicity, religion and culture, society and economy, in addition to political and military conflicts. It is no wonder that the communication and information process becomes the arena of cultural wars and battles. The communication and information process is used as a low intensity conflict strategy against the religio-cultural forces and social- political movements that are struggling for liberation for justice, peace and life.

In the process of encroachment into Asia by the Western powers and their culture, Asia’s people are denied their own cultural roots; their cultural self-determination and identity is eroded to the extent that their community loses its cultural life. Herbert Marcuse called the internal cultural phenomenon of the globally expanding technocratic civilization "one dimensionalization" Soelle calls it "apathetic"; others call it the "cultural wasteland." Modern high-tech communication and information processes immediately injure the cultures of the peoples in Asia, Africa and Latin America beyond recovery. This is a form of cultural genocide.

The world that God has blessed is a world of many races and nations with different cultures and religious traditions, all of which will be gathered in solidarity and harmony in the Messianic Reign. The nations will speak their own languages and share their experiences and cultures through their own communication. The extremism of nationalism and ethnic and religious communal conflict arises because of their suppression by powerful cultures and groups. Cultural identity and abundance is an integral part of human community. Communication and information must foster the creative abundance of cultures and must strengthen the cultural and ethnic identities of peoples and races without being exclusive. Today no society can be wholesome without allowing the self-determination of racial, ethnic and religio-cultural minorities. Communication must be understood as a cultural koinonia in which all cultures interact creatively to enrich and fulfill each other. Communication must be understood as a cultural feast of the peoples.

The koinonia of life extends beyond the human community. Communication that is rooted in the koinonia of life means the sharing of life of all the living, in heaven, on the earth and below the earth. Life shares common perceptions about the reality of life and about the reality of the threat of death. This is communication among living beings, which is quite different from perceptions that are gained through abstract images and symbols. Living beings commune with each other and, hence, communicate with each other. Thus, communication should be a life-enhancing and life-enriching koinonia.

Modern communications media separates human life from the reality of life and places it in a deadly, artificial cultural environment. Our children live in cultural boxes that are manufactured arbitrarily by the communications media. They do not have real life, which is full of tears, lamentation and "Han" (a deep sense of justice which rises in the hearts of the people when they unfairly suffer in history) as well as joy and happiness.

Today communication must touch the living reality which is full of agonizing toils and of grass-smelling freshness. In the Orient, there is the saying that Ki (active life energy) is communicated among all living creatures. It is like the Spirit which is the breath of life in Creation.

Communication is the mutually connecting and penetrating interaction among all living things, including people. Communication binds the five columns of justice, human dignity, peace, identity and life together in its network and strengthens the participation and solidarity of the human community in the universe of life.