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12 November 1999
No. 94


In this issue:

  2. NEWS in Brief
    Korea - KCTU denounces Government's interference on Organsing Trade Unions In Bangladesh
    Philippines - Nov. 12 Declared Black Friday
    Burma - Burmese workers 'unpaid captives' in Thailand
    Asian TNCs - 1000 largest companies in Asia
  3. RESOURCES Received
  4. Urgent APPEALS
    KOBAR Refused Legal Status by Department of Labour and Power


1. FEATURE - top


Ten reasons why biotechnology will not ensure food security,
protect the environment and reduce poverty in the developing world

Miguel A. Altieri, University of California, Berkeley and
Peter Rosset, Food First/Institute for Food and Development Policy, Oakland, California


October 1999

Biotechnology companies often claim that genetically modified organisms (GMOs) -- specifically genetically altered seeds -- are essential scientific breakthroughs needed to feed the world, protect the environment, and reduce poverty in developing countries. This view rests on two critical assumptions, both of which we question. The first is that hunger is due to a gap between food production and human population density or growth rate. The second is that genetic engineering is the only or best way to increase agricultural production and thus meet future food needs.

Our objective is to challenge the notion of biotechnology as a magic bullet solution to all of agriculture's ills, by clarifying misconceptions concerning these underlying assumptions.

  1. There is no relationship between the prevalence of hunger in a given country and its population. For every densely populated and hungry nation like Bangladesh or Haiti, there is a sparsely populated and hungry nation like Brazil and Indonesia. The world today produces more food per inhabitant than ever before. Enough is available to provide 4.3 pounds every person everyday: 2.5 pounds of grain, beans and nuts, about a pound of meat, milk and eggs and another of fruits and vegetables. The real causes of hunger are poverty, inequality and lack of access. Too many people are too poor to buy the food that is available (but often poorly distributed) or lack the land and resources to grow it themselves (Lappe, Collins and Rosset l998).

  2. Most innovations in agricultural biotechnology have been profit-driven rather than need-driven. The real thrust of the genetic engineering industry is not to make third world agriculture more productive, but rather to generate profits (Busch et al l990). This is illustrated by reviewing the principle technologies on the market today: a) herbicide resistant crops such as Monsanto's "Roundup Ready"soybeans, seeds that are tolerant to Monsanto's herbicide Roundup, and b)"Bt" crops which are engineered to produce their own insecticide. In the first instance, the goal is to win a greater herbicide market-share for a proprietary product and in the second to boost seed sales at the cost of damaging the usefulness of a key pest management product (the Bacillus thuringiensis based microbial insecticide) relied upon by many farmers, including most organic farmers, as a powerful alternative to insecticides. These technologies respond to the need of biotechnology companies to intensify farmers' dependence upon seeds protected by so-called" intellectual property rights," which conflict directly with the age-old rights of farmers to reproduce, share or store seeds (Hobbelink l991). Whenever possible corporations will require farmers to buy company's brand of inputs and will forbid farmers from keeping or selling seed. By controlling germplasm from seed to sale, and by forcing farmers to pay inflated prices for seed-chemical packages, companies are determined to extract the most profit from their investment (Krimsky and Wrubel l996).

  3. The integration of the seed and chemical industries appears destined to accelerate increases in per acre expenditures for seeds plus chemicals, delivering significantly lower returns to growers. Companies developing herbicide tolerant crops are trying to shift as much per acre cost as possible from the herbicide onto the seed via seed costs and/or technology charges. Increasingly price reductions for herbicides will be limited to growers purchasing technology packages. In Illinois, the adoption of herbicide resistant crops makes for the most expensive soybean seed-plus-weed management system in modern history -between $40.00 and $60.00 per acre depending on rates, weed pressure, etc. Three years ago, the average seed-plus-weed control costs on Illinois farms was $26 per acre, and represented 23% of variable costs; today they represent 35-40% (Benbrook l999). Many farmers are willing to pay for the simplicity and robustness of the new weed management system, but such advantages may be short-lived as ecological problems arise.

  4. Recent experimental trials have shown that genetically engineered seeds do not increase the yield of crops. A recent study by the USDA Economic Research Service shows that in 1998 yields were not significantly different in engineered versus non-engineered crops in 12 of 18 crop/region combinations. In the six crop/region combinations were Bt crops or HRCs fared better, they exhibited increased yields between 5-30%. Glyphosphate tolerant cotton showed no significant yield increase in either region where it was surveyed. This was confirmed in another study examining more than 8,000 field trials, where it was found that Roundup Ready soybean seeds produced fewer bushels of soybeans than similar conventionally bred varieties (USDA l999).

  5. Many scientists claim that the ingestion of genetically engineered food is harmless. Recent evidence however shows that there are potential risks of eating such foods as the new proteins produced in such foods could: act themselves as allergens or toxins, alter the metabolism of the food producing plant or animal, causing it to produce new allergens or toxins, or reduce its nutritional quality or value as in the case of herbicide resistant soybeans that contained less isoflavones, an important phytoestrogen present in soybeans, believed to protect women from a number of cancers. At present there is a situation in many developing countries importing soybean and corn from USA, Argentina and Brasil, in which genetically engineered foods are beginning to flood the markets, and no one can predict all their health effects on consumers, most unaware that they are eating such food. Because genetically engineered food remains unlabeled, consumers cannot discriminate between GE and non-GE food, and should serious health problems arise, it will be extremely difficult to trace them to their source. Lack of labeling also helps to shield the corporations that could be potentially responsible from liability (Lappe and Bailey, l998).

  6. Transgenic plants which produce their own insecticides closely follow the pesticide paradigm, which is itself rapidly failing due to pest resistance to insecticides. Instead of the failed "one pest-one chemical" model, genetic engineering emphasizes a "one pest-one gene" approach, shown over and over again in laboratory trials to fail, as pest species rapidly adapt and develop resistance to the insecticide present in the plant (Alstad and Andow l995). Not only will the new varieties fail over the short-to-medium term, despite so-called voluntary resistance management schemes (Mallet and Porter l992), but in the process may render useless the natural pesticide "Bt," which is relied upon by organic farmers and others desiring to reduce chemical dependence. Bt crops violate the basic and widely accepted principle of "integrated pest management" (IPM), which is that reliance on any single pest management technology tends to trigger shifts in pest species or the evolution of resistance through one or more mechanisms (NRC l996). In general the greater the selection pressure across time and space, the quicker and more profound the pests evolutionary response. An obvious reason for adopting this principle is that it reduces pest exposure to pesticides, retarding the evolution of resistance. But when the product is engineered into the plant itself, pest exposure leaps from minimal and occasional to massive and continuous exposure, dramatically accelerating resistance (Gould l994). Bt will rapidly become useless, both as a feature of the new seeds and as an old standby sprayed when needed by farmers that want out of the pesticide treadmill (Pimentel et al l989).

  7. The global fight for market share markets is leading companies to massively deploy transgenic crops around the world (more than 30 million hectares in l998) without proper advance testing of short- or long-term impacts on human health and ecosystems. In the U.S., private sector pressure led the White House to decree "no substantial difference" between altered and normal seeds, thus evading normal FDA and EPA testing. Confidential documents made public in an on-going class action lawsuit have revealed that the FDAs own scientists do not agree with this determination. One reason is that many scientists are concerned that the large scale use of transgenic crops poses a series of environmental risks that threaten the sustainability of agriculture (Goldberg, l992; Paoletti and Pimentel l996; Snow and Moran l997; Rissler and Mellon l996; Kendall et al l997 and Royal Society l998):

  1. The trend to create broad international markets for single products, is simplifying cropping systems and creating genetic uniformity in rural landscapes. History has shown that a huge area planted to a single crop variety is very vulnerable to new matching strains of pathogens or insect pests. Furthermore, the widespread use of homogeneous transgenic varieties will unavoidably lead to "genetic erosion," as the local varieties used by thousands of farmers in the developing world are replaced by the new seeds (Robinson l996).

  2. b. The use of herbicide resistant crops undermine the possibilities of crop diversification thus reducing agrobiodiversity in time and space (Altieri l994).

  3. The potential transfer through gene flow of genes from herbicide resistant crops to wild or semidomesticated relatives can lead to the creation of superweeds (Lutman l999).

  4. There is potential for herbicide resistant varieties to become serious weeds in other crops (Duke l996, Holt and Le baron l990).

  5. Massive use of Bt crops affects non-target organisms and ecological processes. Recent evidence shows that the Bt toxin can affect beneficial insect predators that feed on insect pests present on Bt crops (Hilbeck et al l998), and that windblown pollen from Bt crops found on natural vegetation surrounding transgenic fields can kill non-target insects such as the monarch butterfly (Losey et al l999). Moreover, Bt toxin present in crop foliage plowed under after harvest can adhere to soil colloids for up to 3 months, negatively affecting the soil invertebrate populations that break down organic matter and play other ecological roles ( Donnegan et al l995 and Palm et al l996).

  6. There is potential for vector recombination to generate new virulent strains of viruses, especially in transgenic plants engineered for viral resistance with viral genes. In plants containing coat protein genes, there is a possibility that such genes will be taken up by unrelated viruses infecting the plant. In such situations, the foreign gene changes the coat structure of the viruses and may confer properties such as changed method of transmission between plants. The second potential risk is that recombination between RNA virus and a viral RNA inside the transgenic crop could produce a new pathogen leading to more severe disease problems. Some researchers have shown that recombination occurs in transgenic plants and that under certain conditions it produces a new viral strain with altered host range (Steinbrecher l996)

Ecological theory predicts that the large-scale landscape homogenization with transgenic crops will exacerbate the ecological problems already associated with monoculture agriculture. Unquestioned expansion of this technology into developing countries may not be wise or desirable. There is strength in the agricultural diversity of many of these countries, and it should not be inhibited or reduced by extensive monoculture, especially when consequences of doing so results in serious social and environmental problems (Altieri l996).

Although the ecological risks issue has received some discussion in government, international, and scientific circles, discussions have often been pursued from a narrow perspective that has downplayed the seriousness of the risks (Kendall et al. 1997; Royal Society 1998). In fact methods for risk assessment of transgenic crops are not well developed (Kjellsson and Simmsen 1994) and there is justifiable concern that current field biosafety tests tell little about potential environmental risks associated with commercial-scale production of transgenic crops. A main concern is that international pressures to gain markets and profits is resulting in companies releasing transgenic crops too fast, without proper consideration for the long-term impacts on people or the ecosystem.

  1. There are many unanswered ecological questions regarding the impact of transgenic crops. Many environmental groups have argued for the creation of suitable regulation to mediate the testing and release of transgenic crops to offset environmental risks and demand a much better assessment and understanding of ecological issues associated with genetic engineering. This is crucial as many results emerging from the environmental performance of released transgenic crops suggest that in the development of "resistant crops", not only is there a need to test direct effects on the target insect or weed, but the indirect effects on the plant (i.e. growth, nutrient content, metabolic changes), soil, and non-target organisms. Unfortunately, funds for research on environmental risk assessment are very limited. For example, the USDA spends only 1% of the funds allocated to biotechnology research on risk assessment, about $1-2 million per year. Given the current level of deployment of genetically engineered plants, such resources are not enough to even discover the "tip of the iceberg". It is a tragedy-in-the-making that so many millions of hectares have been planted without proper biosafety standards. Worldwide, such acreage expanded considerably in 1998 with transgenic cotton reaching 6.3 million acres, transgenic corn: 20.8 million acres and soybean: 36.3 million acres, helped along by marketing and distribution agreements entered into by corporations and marketers (i.e. Ciba Seeds with Growmark and Mycogen Plant Sciences with Cargill), in the absence of regulations in many developing countries. Genetic pollution, unlike oil spills, cannot be controlled by throwing a boom around it, and thus its effects are non-retrievable and may be permanent. As in the case of pesticides banned in Northern countries and applied in the South, there is no reason to assume that biotechnology corporations will assume the environmental and health costs associated with the massive use of transgenic crops in the South.

  2. As the private sector has exerted more and more dominance in advancing new biotechnologies, the public sector has had to invest a growing share of its scarce resources in enhancing biotechnological capacities in public institutions including the CGIAR and in evaluating and responding to the challenges posed by incorporating private sector technologies into existing farming systems. Such funds would be much better used to expand support for ecologically based agricultural research, as all the biological problems that biotechnology aims at can be solved using agroecological approaches. The dramatic effects of rotations and intercropping on crop health and productivity, as well as of the use of biological control agents on pest regulation have been confirmed repeatedly by scientific research. The problem is that research at public institutions increasingly reflects the interests of private funders at the expense of public good research such as biological control, organic production systems and general agroecological techniques . Civil society must request for more research on alternatives to biotechnology by universities and other public organizations (Krimsky and Wrubel l996). There is also an urgent need to challenge the patent system and intellectual property rights intrinsic to the WTO which not only provide multinational corporations with the right to seize and patent genetic resources, but that will also accelerate the rate at which market forces already encourage monocultural cropping with genetically uniform transgenic varieties. Based on history and ecological theory, it is not difficult to predict the negative impacts of such environmental simplification on the health of modern agriculture (Altieri l996).

  3. Although there may be some useful applications of biotechnology (i.e. the breeding drought resistant varieties or crops resistant to weed competition),because these desirable traits are polygenic and difficult to engineer, these innovations will take at least l0 years to be ready for field use. Once available and if farmers can afford them, the contribution to yield enhancement of such varieties will be between 20-35%; the rest of yield increases must come from agricultural management. Much of the needed food can be produced by small farmers located throughout the world using agroecological technologies (Uphoff and Altieri l999). In fact, new rural development approaches and low-input technologies spearheaded by farmers and NGOs around the world are already making a significant contribution to food security at the household, national and regional levels in Africa, Asia and Latin America (Pretty l995). Yield increases are being achieved by using technological approaches , based on agroecological principles that emphasize diversity, synergy, recycling and integration; and social processes that emphasize community participation and empowerment (Rosset l999). When such features are optimized, yield enhancement and stability of production are achieved, as well as a series of ecological services such conservation of biodiversity, soil and water restoration and conservation, improved natural pest regulation mechanisms, etc (Altieri et al l998). These results are a breakthrough for achieving food security and environmental preservation in the developing world, but their potential and further spread depends on investments, policies , institutional support and attitude changes on the part of policy makers and the scientific community, especially the CGIAR who should devote much of its efforts to assist the 320 million poor farmers living in marginal environments. Failure to promote such people-centered agricultural research and development due to diversion of funds and expertise to biotechnology, will forego a historical opportunity to raise agricultural productivity in economically viable, environmentally benign and socially uplifting ways.

[Source: Institute for Food and Development Policy.]


2. NEWS in Brief - top


KCTU denounces Government's interference on Organsing Trade Unions In Bangladesh

On November 4, 1999, the KCTU issued a statement following a newspaper report concerning the Korean government's intervention in the Export Processing Zone in Bangladesh. In the statement, the KCTU denounced the action of the Korean government attempting to pressure the government of Bangladesh to prohibit the organisation of trade unions in the export processing zones. The KCTU statement condemned the Korean government for trying to "export" its repressive labour policies of the past twenty years that resulted in the imprisonment of thousands of workers.


Nov. 12 Declared Black Friday

Kontra Kartel, a coalition for a pro-Filipino oil industry, declared Nov. 12 'Black Friday'. The coalition distributed black ribbons and stickers in four strategic areas in Metro Manila as part of a day-long protest-action to express their disgust over the series of oil price hikes and prevent a repeat this November.

Members of the oil cartel Petron, Shell, and Caltex -- have been raising prices almost monthly. From April to October, the total amount of the increases has gone up by almost P2.50 per liter. As a result, prices of
commodities have also gone up.

"We hope that by focusing public opinion on the issue, we can force the oil cartel to roll back oil prices or at least stop this month's planned increase," said Kontra Kartel spokesperson Carol Almeda. The broad coalition of anti-oil cartel groups has urged the people to make the Black Friday Protest a habit. A signature campaign was also launched during the coalition's press conference today to press Congress, Malacaņang and the Supreme Court to do their role in preventing the oil cartel's "obscene and immoral monopoly practices."


Burmese workers 'unpaid captives' in Thailand

Some Thai factory owners on the Burmese border have refused to release or  pay their Burmese workers amid a government crackdown on illegal labourers. The factory owners claim they are forced to keep many workers in their dormitories because the border is closed. The truth is many of them are prisoners. Some can't leave even if they want to.

Scores of textile and garment-making businesses are facing bankruptcy after being forced to suspend operations 10 days ago. Their vulnerable, mostly young and female workers are often not being paid. About 300 Burmese gathered outside the Kings Body Concept clothing factory in Mae Sot this week to demand the two months' salary they claim to be owed. Some 1,000 employees of the nearby TK Garment factory made similar demands.

Burma has broken with normal international behaviour by refusing to take back many of the refugees because it is angry with Thailand for what it perceives as the soft treatment of five dissidents who seized its Bangkok embassy for 25 hours a month ago. Rangoon swiftly closed the border after Thailand allowed the five to slip away into the border jungle.

The expatriated migrants usually have no option other than to return to Thailand, where they are often deported again. As a result of these revolving-door detentions and deportations, migrants are being placed at great risk.

The bodies of eight Burmese who were forced to cross the Moei River have so far been found. Five Thai border police raped a woman and molested others on a river bank near Mae Sot.

(Source: SCMP)

Asian TNCs

1000 Largest Companies in Asia

ASIAWEEK reports on Asia's Largest 1000 Companies Ranked by Sales, Profits, Assets and Employees. Only 23 non-Japanese owned companies were featured in the top top 100 companies.

Where are they located?

680 - Japan
73 - Australia
70 - South Korea
35 - Singapore
31 - China
27 - Taiwan
21 - Hong Kong
20 - India
12 - Malaysia
10 - Thailand
8 - New Zealand
7 - Philippines
4 - Indonesia
2 - Pakistan

Ten Companies with Most Employees

421,300 - Jiangsu Sup. & Mktg. Co-op., China
328,351 - Hitachi Ltd., Japan
282,153 - Matsushita Electric Indl., Japan
262,535 - Daqing Oil Mgt. Bur., China
200,000 - East China Electric Power, China
198,000 - Toshiba Corp., Japan
188,000 - Fujitsu Ltd., Japan
183,879 - Toyota Motor Corp., Japan
177,000 - Sony Corp., Japan
175,000 - Jardine Matheson, Hong Kong


3. RESOURCES Received - top

Delorme, Jacky (1999). 'Third World Debt', Trade Union World' No. 8, p.21, International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, Brussels.

The G8 Summit in Cologne last June did not decide to cancel Third World debt. This year the poor countries will once again send nine times more money to their creditors in the North than they receive from them in international aid.

(for a copy write to )


Boff, Leonardo (1999), 'Liberation Theology and Globalization' CPC Information, Praha.

Liberation Theology asks: where do the poor fit into the globalization process? From an economic point of view, globalization responds to the needs of capital, whereby the private acquisition of profit and the maximization of income are the most important elements. As a consequence, economic globalization leads to the exclusion of the masses. Between 1965 and 1990, when the globalization process began to accelerate, global prosperity increased tenfold, while the world population only doubled. And during the same period, the share of the rich counties in this global prosperity increased from 68% to 72%, while the population of these countries dropped from 30% of the world population to 23%.

(For a copy contact )


Walsh, Pat (1999), 'East Timor - A Model Among Mini-States For the next Millennium?, Disaming Times, Pax Christi Australia, Sydney.

Despite all the material shortcomings and other challenges it faces, East Timor is emerging from its baptism of fire with leaders of internationally recognized caliber, a strong Church, and a people who have demonstrated extraordinary resilience, creativity and character. These are great assets. East Timor is becoming the first new state of the third millennium.

(for a copy write to Pax Christi Australia, Sydney branch, P.O. Box A899 Sydney Sth 2000)


Melanchthon, Monica J., (1999). 'Empowerment of Women in Asia: Celebration and Lament Illustrated with the Case of Women in India', PTCA Bulletin, Program for Theology and Cultures in Asia, Vol.12, No.1and 2, Hong Kong.

One of the strengths of the feminist movement is its concern for all marginalized peoples, women and men, and the creation. Unless all oppressed peoples irrespective of class, caste, or ethnic identity are empowered and liberated from the shackles that bind them, feminism has not arrived at its goal. While we have definitely made strides, our journey has not ended; the road ahead is rocky, dented and treacherous. We need to   derive hope and be strengthened from the small winnings and continued in the many faceted struggles that is ours and will continue to be ours for a while still.

(for a copy write to )


Raghavan, Chakravarti (1999). 'From 'Terminator' to 'Traitor' Technologies', Third World Network Features, Third World Network, Penang.

First the 'Terminator' technology and now the 'Traitor' technology - the few Northern-based transnational corporations are just determined to strengthen their grip on the world seed market.

(for a copy see )


'Heightening TNC Domination'(1999), Ibon Facts and Figures, Vol. 22, Nos. 9-10, pp. 12-13. Ibon Foundation, Manila.

Transnational Corporations (TNCs) control  75% of total world investments. The richest TNCs are highly concentrated in developed countries. The list of the world's top TNCs did not change significantly over the years. Most of them still come from the US, Japan and other "G7" countries.

(For a copy write to )


Ediger, Max (1999).'Meeting the Grassroots in their Struggle', Burma Issues, Vol. 9, No. 5, Bangkok.

For some 'grassroots' refers to anyone who is not directly working within government structures. Others might say that it includes those working for change in 'non-government organization' as well as those at the very   bottom of society who are at a distinct disadvantage in participating in or getting services. A more sharply focused definition is that 'grassroots' refers only to those people in society who are in the periphery in terms of participation. They have little, and sometimes no, opportunity for education, jobs, a voice in the decision making and social benefits.

(for a copy write to )  

4. Urgent APPEAL - top


KOBAR Refused Legal Status by Department of Labour and Power

KOBAR, a factory-level trade union spanning six industrial sectors, and an affiliate to FNPBI (National Front for Indonesian Workers' Struggle), was recently refused legal status by the Department of Labour Power. In denying KOBAR legal status as a union, the Department appears to have used a technicality of definition provided by a new yet regressive labour law. The Department said that KOBAR was not a 'union', rather a 'federation'.

KOBAR plans to march to the Department of Labour Power Building next week to demand KOBAR's recognition as a legal union, and to demand an end to military intervention in worker affairs.

Please send messages of support to KOBAR
FNPBI (Front Nasional Perjuangan Buruh Indonesia)
National Front for Indonesian Workers Struggle)
Jl. Tebet Timur III K/2, Jakarta 12820 Indonesia
Tel/fax: 62-21-8296234
E-mail :






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