Globalization from a Buddhist Perspective.
By Pracha Hutanuwatr
I understand that the current debate on globalization has a broad area
of general agreement. This is that globalization is the latest expression of a
longstanding strategy of development based on economic growth and liberalization of trade
and finance. This results in the progressive integration of economies of nations across of
nations across the world through the unrestricted flow of global trade and investment.
Beyond these points people participating in the debate generally split into two main
camps: those who believe that the expansion of the free market economy will benefit the
societies and those who do not.
The mainstream approach is generally the former with the underlying assumption that
globalization brings jobs, technology, income and wealth to societies. However these
societies must be willing to submit to the principles of the free market -- Limiting
public spending, privatizing public services, removing investment, strengthening export
production and controlling inflation.
Those against the above policies argue that the "great success story" of
globalization production has led to a litany of social and ecological crises. This has
resulted in poverty And powerlessness of the majority of people, destruction of community,
depletion of natural resources and unendurable pollution. (Power G. 1997 p 76-77)
From a Buddhist perceptive and from the experience of my country, I have to say that my
standpoint is closer to the later with the awareness that there is big diversity within
both camps and there are people who are trying to work out something in between the two.
We must remember that when we talk about globalization there area other aspects like
globalization of the dominating consumer, mono-culture and accompanying devastating
environmental effects. One more positive note, all around the world we can witness
evidence of the rising consciousness of the inter-connection of ecological systems and the
emerging of global networking among civil society.
However from a Buddhist perspective the very core of the globalization process is the
globalization of Tanah or "craving". According to Buddhist analysis Tanah is the
root cause of all suffering.
As mentioned above, the term globalization may be new but the causes and conditions
leading to it are not. Globalization is an expansion and continuation of the ideas of
development which is rooted in the belief that the "progress" of humanity is a
linear anthropocentric process.
When we look at tanah in relation to this kind of world view we can see that it has
created a kind of civilization that victimizes its own people, people of other world views
and other sentient beings. Over the last few hundred years this has been happening in the
name of industrialization, colonialization and development in both capitalist and
As tanah becomes globalized the scale of suffering has vastly amplified around the world.
Vast masses of largely self-sufficient third world communities are being rapidly
transformed into consumers of capital-intensive goods and services, mainly those provided
by the transnational corporations. Whilst a small amount people perceive benefit through
an increased standard of living, the majority fall victim to discontent, dependency and
poverty. With the increased emphasis on material goods the quality of life of both
deteriorates and becomes spiritually void.
From the Buddhist perspective both the anthropocentric element and the belief in progress
are basic wrong views. In Buddhism the concept of inter-relatedness is essential. If we
seriously consider this, human beings cannot be the "center of the universe". We
are just one among many species and our well being depends on the well of other species
and the natural environment.
The belief in progress moves from the "present moment". The causes and
conditions of staying in the "present moment" or the "Moment of
reality" are of prime importance in Buddhism in the art of coping with suffering.
Under the "progress" ethos we are stimulated to expect that things will be
better in the future at the cost of sacrificing the present reality. This belief in
progress is a kind of myth as it promises something that will never be completely
fulfilled-indeed the striving to fulfill this myth is the causes of the tanah
For the sake of modernization, ordinary people have been structured to abandon cultures
and ways of life that have evolved over thousands of years and are for the most part
extremely appropriate to local conditions and environment. Workers have been maouvered to
sacrifice their labour for low wages for the sake of industrialization, farmers have been
relocated for big infrastructure projects in the name of development and economic growth.
In these processes the disruption to living in the "present moment" and the
resulting upheaval is given little or no consideration at all.
As tanah increases around the world it is hand in hand with the creation of an almost
total consumer mono-culture. This mono-culture is evangelized through the global
advertising agencies, the information highway, satellite and cable television and western
studios. These huge "dream factories" and "information creators"
are coming from an alien cultural base with little relevance to the diverse localities
they are beaming their accusative gospel to. Their alluring messages convey an almost
totally inappropriate and non-sustainable lifestyle to the most remote corners of the
world. The vast majority of people who are manipulated by these messages will never have
the means to fully acquire the images portrayed to them so they will feel inferior and
Like the extinct species of the Amazon thousands of years of unique cultures are being
lost around the world in the name of globalization and progress. As world culture becomes
homogenized traditional art and music forms become under valued and obsolete. All over the
world there is a common oral tradition of story telling with vibrant singers and dancers
portraying unique tales of seasons, gods and local events. These largely spontaneous
artists who's art stimulates compassion, community and solidarity are the heart and soul
of local communities. They are now being ousted by the new icons of pop culture like
Michael Jackson whose performances to the masses hardly enhance quality of life.
As the transnationals invade into every society they bring with them overpowering media
that drowns out the gentler more vibrant local cultural norms. Hence, personal success in
terms of wealth, power, recognition and the futile attempts to fulfill unsuitable sensual
pleasure are the domineering values in globalized society. The result is an inappropriate
form of "western" culture hungry for the unnecessary, overpackaged, standardized
products of the transnational organizations. People are taught to compete and compare in
the purchase of excessive consumer goods. In short, greed, violence and illusion which the
Buddhists can akusalamula (unwholesome roots) in different forms are the norms promoted in
the globalized culture.
However, it seems that the negative result of karma is coming back to hit its own sources
as we see the situation of unemployment, devastation of the environment and disintegration
of family and community values in al societies following this destructive direction. This
is resulting in increasing deep criticism and challenges both from within those societies
and from people of other civilizations. Some critics even put it dramatically that :
"We are witnessing the end of modernity. What this means is that we are in the
process of changes in Patriarchy. (I am male); Individualism (I win therefore I am);
Materialism (I shop therefore I am). Scientific dogmatism (I experiment therefore I know
better or I have no values thus I am right) and Nationalism (I hate the other therefore I
am). This is however a long-term process and part of the undoing of capitalism. All these
connect to create a new world which is potentially the grandest shift in human history. We
are in the midst of galloping time, plastic time, in which the system is unstable and thus
can dramatically transform". (Inayatullah. S. 1997 p.33)
Unfortunately, firstly our elites and later our ordinary people seem to have lost
confidence in our own cultural values. We become convinced that our civilizations are
inferior though we may pay lip service to the forms of our traditions. People in this
state of mind are easily lured onto the consumer band wagon in its many forms. This is
especially true of the younger generation who are so much influenced by the media of the
multinationals. Today our young people aspire to go to expensive western style schools and
inappropriate western style architecture is spawning all over the world. We are abandoning
appropriate and traditional costumes in favour of western style clothes. In many cases
influenced by the hamburger, pizza and coca-cola type chains people around the world are
even changing their eating and drinking habits in order to emulate the
"progressive" nations. Sustainable and wise cultural practices are also
changing. The Chinese are no longer proud that they abandoned the firegun hundreds of
years ago though they had the knowledge to invent it before any western nations, if they
chose to. The high ranking Buddhist monks in my country are forgetting the basic teachings
of the Buddha to live a simple life in order to search for higher wisdom- these modern
monks are competing with each other for the latest model of BMW'S and Mercedes! The lay
Buddhist of my generation and my parents generation use Buddhism only as ritualistic
function in life and few live a life according to the real teachings. Today most lay
Buddhist actually worship money and "success".
Around the world the numbers of single people are rising and the isolated "nuclear
families" are becoming the norm. Modern people are becoming more and more cut off
from communities, societies and the natural environment. Surly, this cannot sustain itself
and over the next generations we will witness further breakdown of societies. Ultimately
this may mean the end of the era of modernity although what world view will emerge from
the ruins is still unclear.
Problems caused by globalization
Thus it would seem that globalization can mean the spreading of greed, violence and
individualism to all corners of the globe. From a Buddhist point of view, when the
cultural values of a society are motivated by these unwholesome roots, the society itself
will face all kinds of difficulties. Specifically these include corruption, crime, war,
exploitation and abuse. Generally they lead to ecological destruction, disintegration of
cultural values and the breakdown of all relationship.
This is because, from a non-self point of view, we are one with other beings in the
universe, human and non-human. Hence to harm others is to harm ourselves as well. Our
social and environmental crises are witness of this law of nature. The inter-relatedness
between human moral conduct and ecological balance is clearly stated in the comments on a
Pali Sutta. He is commenting on the results of people not acting in accordance with the
Dhamma (Law of Nature).
"Now, when the Brahimins and people with money already do not act according to
dhamma, the city people and country people do not act in accordance with dhamma, so it
follows that both the city and country people do not act according to dhamma. ... When we
have reached the point where all people do not act according to dhamma there arise
uncertainties, fluctuations and abnormal conditions in all nature: The orbit of the moon
and sun is fluctuating and uncertain.... the stellar system has been disturbed by the
ambitions of very greedy people, people who do not act according to dhamma."
The Sutta goes on to describe how panjassa (pattern or order) of the universe becomes
confused and this affects the patterns of weather which affect the crops and in turn the
people and animals cannot survive. Buddhadasa comments:
"Human beings have long since brought about injustices which have left their mark on
nature; this has resulted in nature behaving incorrectly. When nature is disrupted, it
surrounds humans and brings about their continued downfall until it effects their physical
bodies and their heart-mind: than our heart-mind also becomes mixed up." (Buddhadasa,
1987, p 22-27)
We can see these difficulties clearly happening in all societies as they become touched by
modernization. Under the new name of globalization the catastrophe will further intensify.
The mad rush towards progress in the last thirty years of development in Siam has left a
vast disparity between rich and poor and huge, devastating scars on the culture, the
environment and the social norms. It is hard to believe that contemporary Thai values have
sprung from a Buddhist culture.
Many aspects of contemporary Siam are frightening examples of all that is wrong with
modernization. The underpinning capitalist mono-culture seems a value system almost
totally at odds with the traditional Buddhist philosophy based on inter-connection,
compassion and awareness of greed, hate and illusion.
Let us start with Bangkok, once renowned as the Venice the East, a mystic city of canals
and golden spires - now one of the most polluted cities in the world and a concrete jungle
in the truest sense. Bangkok is known to locals as Krung Thep. The city of angles is full
of construction sites, ugly new buildings, super highways and shopping malls
indiscriminately built and tearing the heart out of local communities. Many huge slum
areas have materialized and many people live in very basic shacks which if in the country
near a clean water supply might suffice but in the rat ridden, exhaust fumed city are not
an abode for healthy living.
To many of the visitors, Bangkok's angles are the numerous prostitutes in what has now
become a global center for sex tourism resources mainly by very young, girls from poor
rural areas and indigenous hill tribes both from within Siam and neighboring countries.
Many of the unsophisticated girls have been tricked or lured into becoming prostitutes by
unscrupulous employment procurers who recruit from the villages promising high salaries
for jobs in the "entertainment" industry. Most of the girls have little
awareness of exactly what this will entail.
This burgeoning of the sex industry has been encouraged by an emerging consumer society
advocating instant gratification and spurred on by the example of firstly, the US Vietnam
soldiers on R&R and later, the sex tourists who were lured to fill the gap.
The landscape of Siam has been stripped of its trees, the coral reefs destroyed through
pollution and plundering, the water in the numerous klongs and rivers of this water-based
culture are now so polluted they are unsafe to swim in. The destruction of the rain
forests which act as natural sponges during the rainy season has caused extreme flooding.
The building of huge dams for hydro-electricity caused thousands of people to lose their
traditional, self reliant way of life when they were displaced by these dams to infertile
land and lured by government schemes to produce cash crops. Only a few decades ago the
culture was still based on rural sustainable agriculture that was inter-dependant with the
floods, the farming seasons worked around it welcoming the fertile silt from the
floodwater. If a few simple, thatched houses were damaged they were easy to replace or
repair from the abundant forests. Nowadays floods are seen as a menace destroying cash
crops and causing unbelievable chaos to the already congested streets of Bangkok. In these
days of acquisition the fear of floods has a whole new dimension as expensive houses and
possessions are in danger of water damage.
How could this happen in a Buddhist society? With few exceptions the monks of Siam are
naively welcoming globalization as an unavoidable friend. Many monks have consumer goods
such as mobile phone, BMW's and portable computers, many are obsessed with raising money
from their newly rich parishioners to build ever bigger Buddha's and useless halls and
As is the trend around the world, the bright young contemporary minds of Siam are being
lured into the fast paced business world with little time or inclining to develop wisdom
through contemplation. Young and old Thais alike are victims of the huge promotion of a
global monoculture through the actions of the multinationals with the capitalist,
Activists, environmentalists and ordinary people affected by big development projects
launched campaign after campaign against these tendencies such as the Forum of the Poor
protests. The effect of that Thai foreign multinational corporations turned to neighboring
countries for timber, hydroelectric dams and other natural resources.
This kind of development truly benefits very few people and even those who become rich
often become victims of acquisitive desires which robs them of personal fulfillment. In
spite of their "success" in wealth, power and recognition they are still haunted
by the sense of lack and basic existential insecurity. A basic fact of life which they
never have time to pay attention to. These people expecting instant gratification have
lost touch with the art of coping with basic human suffering. This art has been well
developed in the Buddhist tradition through meditation practice and is a wonderful tool
for ensuring emotionally mature and stable adults. I believe that the art of coping with
suffering is not exclusive to the Buddhist tradition-indeed it is an integral part of most
traditional religious and indigenous wisdom.
This new kind of suffering spawned, by consumerism which is fueled by the globalization
process is happening in various stages all over Southeast Asia, and indeed the world. Even
in countries like Burma and Laos the scars of the consumer society are emerging. This is
seen in the ugly modern buildings that are starting to appear in Rangoon and Vientiane,
the ubiquitous coca-cola available in the smallest villages and in the gentlepeople who
feel "left behind" and aspire to western goods they have heard about on
Looking at these trends globally, some startling facts of structural violence in regard to
economic injustice in the world today are:
20% of people in the richest countries receive 87% of the world income. The poorest 20% of
the world's people receive barely 1.4% of total income. Combined incomes of top 20% we
nearly 60 times larger than bottom 20%. The gap doubled since 1950 when top 20% had
30 times income of bottom 20%. And this gap continues to grow.
"The thin segment of super rich in the world have formed a stateless alliance that
defines global interest as synonymous with personal and corporate financial interest of
its members. They claim the world's wealth at the expenses of less affluent people, other
species and eco-systems on the planet. This is the true meaning of global competitiveness
competition among localities. Large corporations, by contrast minimize their competition
through mergers and strategic alliances." (Korten. D. 1996 p 24)
The result of this structural violence is that for 80% of the world's population
globalization means global poverty in the sense that:
"In the 1960's and before, capitalism needed us, if only to exploit us. They not only
needed our land, our natural resources, our forests, our ports; they needed us as workers,
to exploit our labor. Now they do not even need us to exploit. We are expendable. So they
decided to let us die. To let us have diseases such as cholera, to let us have our
shanty-towns around all the major cities where millions of people live. They are creating
another type of society, also capitalist, or rather sub-capitalist. It is the Capitalism
of Poverty." (Hoidobro, E. 1996 p 36 quoted by Carmen. R. 1997 p 57)
As part of being human we all have a tendency towards greed, hated and illusion. In the
modern world this tendency is greatly encouraged, hence the globalization of suffering
described above. In a more just and fair society these negative trends are warned against
rather than worshipped as something we all should pursue.
An Alternative Buddhist Vision
How can Buddhism contribute meaningfully to the present crisis of civilizations? I suggest
that the main contribution will be the Buddhist view of meaning of life and its
implications on the kind of society that encourages this.
From the Buddhism point of view happiness doesn't come from trying to satisfy tanha
(unsatiable cravings), either for material wealth, power, recognition or sensual pleasure,
a trend propagated by the present global consumerism. On the contrary, glorifying tanha
will lead to meaninglessness, dissatisfaction and alienation. Happiness and real meaning
of life come from the reduction of tanha which will in turn open space for kusalamuta (the
wholesome qualities of life) to flourish e.g. compassion, wisdom, generosity, peace of
mind. This kusalamuta will connect us to ourselves, our fellow human beings and nature.
These qualities of life are considered as ariyadhana (noble wealth) or real qualities that
will help us to cope with suffering. Buddhism encourages us to confront this existential
suffering in life. In contrast, modern culture offers a way to escape from this suffering
in the name of progress with its promises of health, prosperity and consumption. In other
words modern culture encourages the satisfying of tanha which is the root cause of
suffering. So this is why there is so much suffering in the modern world despite the high
levels of prosperity and technological advance.
In an authentic Buddhist civilization a good life could be materially simple and in tune
with the natural environment. One would have few belongings and abundant time for
meditation, friendship and community life.
A good Buddhist society is one that is dominated by values such as cooperation,
generosity, compassion, spirituality and a social environment that supports and encourages
the growth of kusalamuta among people. In the idea? Buddhist society the economic,
political and cultural structures would support the increasing of these attributes. Of
course this is the opposite of the present global trends. From this view point a simple
life with far less consumer goods than in the present western norm in preferable. This is
because less consumption will ease our lives from material burden and allow us to
This doesn't mean that Buddhism rejects material well-being. The point is to know and
understand the limits of material well-being but not to let the means become the end, as
modern people tend to do. A mantra for this kind of living could be
"contentment" rather than "the more the better". this should not be in
the sense of rigid ideology by should allow a wide range of modes of ownership with upper
limits. At one end of the scale would be people living very simply with the little
"material" security such as authentic Buddhist monks and nuns who consumer
according to their basic needs but devote their lives to the service of humankind and all
sentient beings. These kinds of people can be the guiding lights of a society. Whereas, at
the other and are people who only care for the well-being of an individual and their
immediate family. They may do so but with an upper limit of ownership that does not allow
them to use wealth to exploit others and nature. Greed is not encouraged. between these
two poles there can be a diverse range of modes of ownership and enterprise according to
individual choice based on the ideas of economic decentralization.
Another pertinent factor is political decentralization. This is because power, like wealth
can be used both negatively and positively and the tendency to use negativity is always
there. So the smaller the better for political organizations. We have to bear in mind that
the Buddha established the Sangha in a very decentralized form without appointing any of
his disciples to be the supreme leader of the Sangha in spite of the fact that there were
many enlightened disciples around in those days.
As a Buddhist I would draw inspiration from Buddhist tradition to encourage localization/
decentralization over globalization/ monopolization. This kind of localization/
decentralization doesn't conflict with international networking among civil society
initiatives if it is not in the spirit of centralization.
Whilst there are undoubtedly many factors, in principle I agree with David Korten's
argument that "We do not have a globalized economy because of some historical
inevitability. We have it because a small group of people who have enormous political and
economic power chose to advance their narrow and short-term economic interest through a
concerted well-organized and well-funded effort to rewrite the rules of the market to make
it happen. In other words, economic globalization came about as a consequence of conscious
human choices. It is the right, indeed the responsibility, of those who were not party to
those decisions to reclaim the power we have yielded to those who have used it against the
public interest and to make different choices." (Korten, D. p65-66)
Globalization and non-self
Globalization, like anything else, is impermanent and thus non-self and will last as long
as causes and conditions allow it. Like all other tempting matters, we need to be aware of
both positive and negative effects of globalization. Once we have enough critical
awareness that the negative aspect outdoes the positive aspect then we will be able to go
beyond or liberate ourselves from it.
At least in my country, the poor are the ones who have seen the negative sides very
As a Buddhist, I believe that no institution can last long without real moral legitimacy
however powerful it may be. In regard to the multinational corporations manipulating the
globalization process mainly for their own benefit and creating so much suffering for
other people I agree with people who foresee the end of the present trends towards
The future of the planet can not be and will not be the simple continuation of the present
neo-conservative capitalism. That economic system will never deliver the good of
development and welfarism to all of us. The frustration and anger of the jobless and of
the hungry (and unfulfilled?) will be increasingly corroborated by the loss of confidence
by a growing part of humankind in the progress and happiness promised by capitalism and
its "development". Immanual Walterstein believes that capitalism my collapse,
not primarily because it is lucking economic technology to adjust to the crises but due to
the fundamental lack of legitimacy in the eyes of both the north and the South".
(Verhelst 1996 quoted by Carman, R. 1997 p 57)
A Buddhist response is not just sitting and waiting for mara (evil forces) to cause
collapse. We have to cultivate our parami (spiritual strengths) to liberate ourselves and
our communities from this corporate-imperialist process.
In Siam there are a number of grassroots initiatives led by farsighted farmers and NGO
workers that are attempting to liberate their communities from the mainstream market
forces. Their approach is to return from cash crop agriculture promoted by the government
in the last 30 years to primarily growing food for community consumption with only the
surplus sold for cash.
Over the last ten years or so some farmers and villages have been experimenting with
alternative agricultural projects emphasizing organic fertilizer and insecticide and on a
subsistence economy base. After a decade, the improved quality of life can be clearly seen
and has become a visible demonstration of a viable alternative.
However the general picture for rural Siam over the last decade is much more depressing.
Many, many farmers have gone into debt and bankruptcy through joining the cash crop
economy. Thousands of rural people have been relocated from their fertile homelands due to
big development projects such as hydroelectric dams and power stations.These are major
reasons for the long protests of the Forum of the Poor over the last ten years. With the
protests of the poor and the severe problems of the growth oriented economy my country is
close to a crisis situation. Many people are starting to look to the few innovative
examples of alternative agriculture as a solution, especially among the poor. Prompted by
the demands of the Forum, some government departments are planning to cooperate with the
NGO's and POs to encourage around 8 millions farmers to join this movement. This is an
exciting new direction although it is too early to predict any real and positive change.
As for the middle and upper classes, the falling of the Thai economy may help to awaken
people to the real situation of globalization. During the last 15 "boom" years
many Siamese worshipped globalization and development as their businesses flourished. Now
as the bottom starts to fall out of the economy they are left wondering how they can
survive: Many may not yet see that there is now an opportunity for people to develop a
true critical self awareness of the dangers of globalization. Hopefully the voice of
mindfulness from Buddhist thinkers such as the late Venerable Buddhadasa and Sulak
Sivaraksa will be listened to more than those of the secular technocrats and money makers
who have been determining the fate of the country for the last half century.
Buddhadasa, translated by Olsan, G. (1987) "A Notion of Buddhist
Ecology", in Seed of Peace. Vol. 3 No. 2 May 2530 (1987) Bangkok, Siam
Carmen, R. (1997) "How much is Enough" in Development The
Journal of the Society for International Development Vol. 40 No. 2 June 1997, Rome, Italy
Inayatullah S. (1997) "Global Transformation in Development" (the same volume)
Korten, D. (1996) "The Failure of Bretton Woods" in the
Case against the Global Economy edited by Mander, J. & Goldsmith, E. (1996) Sierra
Club books: San Francisco
Power, G. (1997) "Globalization and its Discontents in
Development" (the same volume)
(The article above was presented at the "Symposium on
Consequences of Economic Globalisation in Asia" which was held in Bangkok from 12-15
November 1999. For more information on this symposium, contact email@example.com )
FATALLY INJURED ON THE PICKET LINE
A supporter on a New Zealand Waterfront Workers Union picket line died
on 31 December two days after having been run over on the picket line by a four-wheel
Ms Christine Clarke had joined the port workers' picket during a dispute at the Port of
Lyttelton near the main South Island city of Christchurch. Unionised port workers and
their supporters were stopping vehicles at the port and handing out leaflets explaining
their opposition to the Lyttelton Port Company's plan to contract out the loading of coal.
Christine Clarke had been standing on the peaceful picket line with her hands on the
bonnet of the stationary four-wheel drive vehicle. The driver, a local importer who had
already been through the picket line several times that day, became abusive. Christine
Clarke was run over when the vehicle was suddenly driven directly at her and then driven
off at speed.
Christine suffered head injuries and although operated on for serious brain injuries she
did not regain consciousness and died in hospital. Police have arrested the driver who
will be facing serious driving charges in relation to causing Christine's death.
The dispute about the contracting out of coal loading has been temporarily settled. The
company has agreed to further talks and will not contract out the work for at least
another month. However the issues at the centre of the dispute have not been resolved.
Christine Clarke's death is only the second at a picket line in Aotearoa/New Zealand.
Miner Frederick Evans died after a baton blow to the head during the Waihi miners' strike
The memory of Christine Clarke and her peaceful direct action in solidarity with workers'
protesting against the contracting out of their jobs will live on in the trade union
history of Aotearoa/New Zealand.
Messages can be sent to:
New Zealand Waterfront Workers Union
Fax 64 3 328 8798
Members of banned democracy party
sentenced to 10 and six years.
Two members of the banned China Democracy Party have been sentenced to
10 and six years in prison on charges of subversion.
The families of Tong Shidong and Liao Shihua were told yesterday that Tong was given a
10-year jail term and Liao six years, the Information Centre of Human Rights and
Democratic Movement in China said.
The sentences were handed down on December 22 by the Changsha City
Intermediate People's Court in Hunan province.
Tong, 65, an assistant professor of physics at Hunan University, set up a chapter of the
outlawed democracy party on campus.
Liao, 50, a party member, organised protests against corruption and cuts in housing and
medical benefits for workers of the Changsha Automobile Electrical Equipment Factory.
He was sentenced to four years for being a democracy party member, but received two more
years for organising a workers' protest in June which halted traffic for six hours in the
city of Changsha.
DAW AUNG SAN SUU KYI NEW YEARS' MESSAGE
Presented by "Democracy and Rights 2000" on New Year's eve at
a rally next to Legislative Council Building, Hong Kong.
What are we going to be thinking of as the clock strikes midnight on the31st of December
1999? That will be the last year of the 20th century and we are going to enter the 21st
century. We will all be thinking our different thoughts, thinking of what we think might
happen in the new year and what we wish might happen. I hope that we are all wishing for
peace and for happiness, for greater friendship and for greater understanding. In the end
there is not very much that we can wish for. If you ask people anywhere in the world what
they want, apart from the very personal such as a new house or a new car or doing well in
the examinations, I think most people would say the same things that they would like a
peaceful life, they would like a happy life, they would like greater security, they would
like greater freedom, they would like to be free from want and from fear. I think for me
that is the great hope for the millennium, that we must be free from want and fear, not
just the people of Burma but people all over the world.
Want and fear are two of the greatest enemies that we have to contend with from day to
day. In a country like Burma where we have been crushed under the military regime for
many, many years, want and fear stalk us all the time. People wake up in the morning
wondering which of their friends have been taken into detention by the authorities. People
wake up in the morning wondering where the next meal is going to come from. They wake up
in the morning wondering what the future of their children will be and worrying about it.
Want and fear go together where there are no human rights and where there is no justice.
We would like justice, human rights and peace to spread all over the world that the people
everywhere might live free from fear and from want.
In Asia, where so many of us believe in such high ideals, there's still a great need, a
very, very great need for understanding the basic human factors that make human life
acceptable. I sometimes think that Asians are too hard on ourselves as human beings. I
think there is a lack of compassion, which is a great pity and a great surprise because
Buddhism was born in Asia and Buddhism is the great religion of compassion. But yet
compassion is a very basic ingredient in all religions. For this reason I hope that as we
approach the year 2000, we will increase compassion all over the world.
In our struggle for democracy and human rights, we would like greater support from our
fellow Asians. We would especially like the Japanese people to take a strong stand in the
battle for democracy. Japan is one of the strongest economies in the world and it is a
democracy. It is certainly the richest Asian country. As a richest Asian country and as a
democracy Japan has a duty to try to promote human rights and democracy in other parts of
Asia. We hope that the year 2000 will see a blossoming of Japanese interest in human
rights and democracy.
I also hope the year 2000 will be a year of great happiness for the people of Hong Kong
where I understand this tape is going to be played. I feel great affection for Hong Kong
because so many of my friends are there and we have always known of it as a dynamic little
corner of the earth known to the rest of the world for their achievements. What you have
achieved in the field of economics, I'm sure you'll be able to achieve in the field of
humanity as well. I wish you well in the year 2000 and I thank you for giving me this
opportunity to speak to you.
INDONESIA: HR lawyers and HR
On 4 January 2000, the two prominent human rights lawyers and human
rights activists Syaifuddin Gani and Nazaruddin Ibrahim, were arrested by Indonesian
Police in Sigli town, Pidie District, Aceh. They are currently being held at Sigli police
resort (Polres). Amnesty International is concerned for their safety.
The two were arrested as part of a sweeping police operation in search of members of the
armed separatist group Gerakan Aceh Merdeka (GAM), Free Aceh
The reason for their arrest is not known but is believed to be in connection with their
human rights activities - both men are actively involved with non-governmental human
rights organizations in Aceh. They are not thought to have been charged with any offence
yet. As such, Amnesty International considers them to be prisoners of conscience.
Since late 1998, serious human rights violations in Aceh have increased in the course of
counter-insurgency operations by the Tentara Nasional Indonesia (TNI), Indonesian National
Army against GAM, which has seen hundreds of people arbitrarily detained on suspicion of
having links to the organization. Those detained are often denied access to lawyers of
their choice, and are at risk of
torture or ill-treatment.
Human rights defenders and those who work for non-governmental organizations are
particularly at risk of human rights violations, threats and harassment. On 18 November,
six people involved in humanitarian work with refugees in South Aceh were reportedly
detained by Indonesian soldiers and badly beaten before being released.
The failure by the authorities to bring security force personnel to justice for human
rights violations they have committed in the area has fuelled tension and anger among the
population. On 30 July, the then President, Habibie, announced the establishment of an
Independent Investigation Commission on Violence in Aceh. Although the findings of the
Commission have been submitted to the new President, Abdurrahman Wahid, and Attorney
General, Marzuki Darusman, the authorities have failed to take concrete measures to act on
RECOMMENDED ACTION: Please send telegrams/telexes/faxes/express/airmail
in English, Indonesian or your own language:
- urging the authorities to immediately release Syaifuddin Gani and
- urging the authorities to ensure that they are given immediate access to
human rights lawyers, their family and to medical professionals;
- urging the authorities to provide guarantees that they are not tortured or
ill-treated in custody;
- urging the authorities to allow human rights activists to conduct their work
without fear of being subjected to human rights violations.
Chief of National Police
Lt. Gen. Rusdihardjo
Markas Besar Kepolisian RI
Jl. Trunojoyo 13
Telegrams: National Police Chief, Jakarta, Indonesia
Faxes: + 62 21 720 7277
Salutation: Dear Lt. General
KH Abdurrahman Wahid
Faxes: + 62 21 345 2685 (via State Secretariat)/ 380 5511 / 526 8726
Telexes: 44283 BIGRA IA; 44469 DEPLU IA
Attorney GeneralMarzuki Darusman, SHJaksa AgungJl. Sultan Hasanuddin
No.1 Kebayoran Baru
Jakarta Selatan 12130
Faxes: + 62 21 725 0213 / 739 2576
and to diplomatic representatives of Indonesia accredited to your country.
PLEASE SEND APPEALS IMMEDIATELY. Check with the International Secretariat of
Amnesty International, or your section office,
if sending appeals after 2 February 2000.