RESPONDING TO GLOBALIZATION AND DEBT FROM
A RELIGIOUS PERSPECTIVE*
J.B. Banawiratma S.J.
Let us approach this issue in three steps: (1) the challenge of
globalization, (2) our religious response to that challenge, and (3) the problem of debt
in the context of globalization.
The Challenge of Globalization
The phenomenon of globalization is most discussed from the economic perspective and
understood as integration of economics of the whole world including the 3rd world into
liberal capitalist economy dominated by the Group 7 (Delhi 1998, a group consultation on
globalization). Globalization is not a neutral phenomenon. It might show itself as a
positive phenomenon of human fellowship and solidarity promoted through international
networking. Yet, it has been especially related to "neo-colonialism"
(Mangunwijaya 1998), economic domination, cultural aggression and political imperialism.
Using the expression of Pope Paul VI "financial or technical assistance was being
used as a cover for some new form of colonialism that would threatens their civil liberty,
exert economic pressure ... or create a new power group with controlling influence"
(PP, 1967, no.53)
To open a broader discussion it might be useful to hear A. Giddens general
definition on globalization.
"Globalization is really about transformation of space and time. I define it as
action at distance, and relate its intensifying over recent years to the emergence of
means of instantaneous global and mass transportation.
Globalization does not only concern the creation of large-scale systems, but also the
transformation of local, and even personal. contexts of social experience. Our day-to-day
activities are increasingly influenced by events happening on the side of the world.
Conversely, local lifestyle habits have become globally consequential. Thus my decision to
buy a certain item of clothing has implications not only for the international division of
labor but for the earths ecosystems."
We can describe the global action at distance with its multi-aspects affecting local and
personal contexts. The action at distance happens not primarily between nations and
states, but between the classes of different nations. The most marginalized people are the
dominated classes in the poor countries. They undergo double domination, namely from the
vested interests of international organizations and from the dominating classes in the
Economical action at distance includes three related areas - the movement of goods,
capital and labour across national boundaries, in which free market plays the dominant
actor directed by profit motivations of private enterprises (cf. Kunen 1997:17). The Human
Development Report of UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) 1992 depicted global
distribution of income in a famous figure of "champagne glass". The richest 20 %
of worlds population receives 82.7% of the total world income while the poorest 20%
receives only 1.4%. The gap between the rich and the poor is continuing to grow.
The global economical movement has been supported by political power in the North and in
the South. The support has two faces. The authoritarian regimes prevent poor peoples
participation in economics and politics, and free politics (sometimes in the face of
democratic rhetoric) that is directed by interest of free flow of money. The Indonesian
Bishops Lenten pastoral letter 1997, for example, mentioned among many other
problems, the problem of corruption, collusion and manipulation in all areas of our
"Many people seem to lose more and more their sense of shame: taking advantage of
ones office, position, and opportunities for enriching oneself, ones family,
relatives, close friends and ones own group".
The economic domination and political imperialism are supported by cultural aggression
driven by the new technologies. The hidden and worst agenda of advertising is to produce
peoples illusion so far as to hold the principle, that buying, possessing or
consuming goods and services are the guarantee of human satisfaction and fulfillment.
Sometimes the traditional values of culture are abused to manipulate people and to keep
them silent towards the "imperialistic father in an over-extended family"
(cronies). Instead of being critical to traditional values in the context of
post-traditional social order, these values are abused for economical and political
Religious Response: At the Side of the Power or of the People?
A short glimpse over the phenomenon of globalization brings us to deep impression and
concern of its implication. Globalization is not a neutral matter. It is pregnant with
ambiguity, with unfair competition and unjust relationship in all areas of life. The
political, economical and cultural domination are interconnected. Often religion instead
of defending the poor, becomes a part of powers hegemony.
The national problem is not only caused by foreign impacts; it is also a matter of
national condition. The government exercises oppression in many ways. It has means like
military, laws and ideology that often supported by cultures and religions. The government
knows the importance of economy and the agents of big business need the support from the
government. They act in collusion with each other with the expense of workers, farmers and
The struggle for social change is faced with a structural difficulty that is strengthened
by ideology, information, laws and military. The farmers and the workers (men and women)
should organize themselves. By so doing the farmers can become more independent and
autonomous. Not like now, rather than being producers they are more consumers of seeds,
artificial fertilizer and pesticide that are controlled by the fabrics. Without empowering
the farmers enough food can not be available. The workers should organize themselves, so
that they are strong enough to struggle for their interest, so that they can participate
in the process of production and take part in the profit. People and groups as many as
possible should take part. But the first actors are the poor, the exploited themselves.
Without their participation there will be no real social change. In other words, the way
to follow is empowering the poor, promoting movement from below.
One of the impacts of globalization is the rise of fundamentalism (cf. Giddens 1994: 6-7,
245) that shows itself not only in religion, but also in family (nepotism), in ethnicity
and race (primordialism) as well as in gender (patriarchy). Christians are not free from
this temptation. The danger of fundamentalism lies in its refusal for dialogue and its
potential for violence. In this condition, it has not been difficult for the military, and
other interested parties, to manipulate religion and ethnicity in order to set one group
against another and to divide and rule, devide et impera. The dominated and marginalized
people become more powerless.
Religion is not a neutral phenomenon. It can be religion of the powerful or of the poor.
Religion can legitimize injustice or defend the poor and the marginalized, live for
justice and humanity. Being Christian is to follow Jesus Christ as the Way, to be with Him
where He is and to do what He did and is doing. Consequently, orthopraxis has priority
over orthodoxy, and both needs to be contextually performed. With the poor, God has an
agreement to ally against Mammon, against the absolutization of power and wealth. Jesus is
the symbol of the conflict between God and Mammori, between Gods kinship and
Anti-Gods kinship, between positive and negative power. The criterion of following
the Way is preferential option for and with the poor and the marginalized, whose primacy
should be struggled for.
The Churchs preferential option for (and with) the poor and the marginalized need to
be manifested concretely in all areas of life, economics, politics, culture and ecology.
We should be aware however that the poor are not just objects of charity, they are also
agents of social change. As for all human beings, their dignity comes from being made in
the image of God, being co-responsible for the creation. Therefore, the most appreciative
service for them is to be with them in such a way that they are able to empower themselves
and to control their own lives (cf. Giddens 1993:208-231; 1994: 14-15). The efforts for
the empowerment of the poor are the manifestations of option for the poor, which is
centered in the poor themselves.
We need to be grateful that in Asia there are movements of justice, compassion and
solidarity. We observe among the youth, intellectuals, legal advocates and nongovernmental
organizations, inter-faith movements, efforts to empower people, to stand at the side of
the victims, to defend the rights of children and women. The womens movement
supporting the victims and to struggling against violence has manifested sensitivity for
life and brought extensive impact. The community consciousness of legal values, freedom
and justice, as well as cultural and traditional rights is increasing. We also experience
universal trends to cooperate in the promotion of human dignity and human rights as well
as democracy. All of these are the signs of Gods presence and action in our life in
It is also a really promising sign that Asian contextual and liberative theologies are
flourishing everywhere (see Pieris 1988, Amaladoss 1997). Hopefully these theologies can
serve not only as intellectus fidei but also as intellectus amoris et compassionis to help
people of faith to be compassionate and loving God and the afflicted.
The Church is called to live not for herself, but to be open to follow Christ witnessing
Gods kinship. A new way of being and living Church that is more flexible to face
current challenges can be described as communion of contextual communities, namely Basic
Christian (Ecumenical) Community towards Basic Human Community and Basic Inter-Faith
Community as a community of dialogue and transformation. The call for global ethic can be
put in a framework of globalization of solidarity, or "globalization from
below". The imperialistic globalization should be met with a counter strategy, namely
a culture of networking among contextual communities towards globalization without
marginalization, towards building a worldwide community of justice, peace and integrity of
creation. God is calling us to be faithful disciples of Jesus Christ in praxis; we are
called to live out risk-taking solidarity with the victims. The credibility of our witness
needs to be gained through our honest and sincere attitudes, words and acts.
The Problem of Debt
One of the problems within the context of globalization is international debt. It is an
example of international unjust relationship involving the debtor countries as well as the
creditors. Take an example of Indonesia. "During the New Order period, the World Bank
provided $30 billion in loan to Indonesian government. But due to existing culture of
corruption, 30% of the aid was misappropriated. Finance has come to means of stealing and
accumulation of wealth through the public fund without control" (Winters 1999: 90).
J. A. Winters describes the fact as criminal debt. For more than 30 years the World Bank
continued to give loan even when it knew that a big amount of the money was stolen.
(Winters 1999: 124). Therefore, there is enough reason for Indonesia to demand
cancellation of all or at least part of that criminal debt. Yosef P. Widyatmadja thinks in
the same direction and offers suggestion how decrease in debt can be used as a way to seek
the balance of the right of living and sharing natural resources (Widyatmadja 1999: 127).
The Catholic tradition has offered some considerations about the problem of debt at least
since Pope Paul VI.
"Rates of interest and time for repayment of the loan could be so arranged as not to
be too great a burden on either party, taking into account free gifts, interest-free or
low-interest loans, and the time needed for liquidating the debts" (Populorum
Progressio 1967, no. 54).
The encyclical letter of John Paul II, Sollicitudo Rei Socialis (1987, No 19.3-5; cf.
Pontifical Justice and Peace Commission 1986) depicts the situation of foreign debt as
"The reason which prompted the developing peoples to accept the offer of abundantly
available capital was the hope of being able to invest it in development projects. Thus
the availability of capital and the fact of accepting it as a loan can be considered a
contribution to development something desirable and legitimate in itself even though
perhaps imprudent and occasionally hasty.
Circumstances having changed both within the debtor nations and in the international
financial market, the instrument chosen to make a contribution to development has turned
into a counterproductive mechanism. This is because the debtor nations, in order to
service their debt, find themselves obliged to export the capital needed for improving or
at least maintaining their standard of living. It is also because, for the same reason,
they are unable to obtain new and equally essential financing.
Through this mechanism, the means intended for the development of peoples has turned into
a brake upon development instead, and indeed in some cases has even aggravated
U.S. Catholic Conference Administrative Board has raised the principles of justice,
solidarity and the common good and offers the following criteria:
The primary objective ought to be to assist in revitalizing the
economies of the debt- burdened countries and to help poor people participate in their
quality of life; in general, the greatest help should be provided for the greatest need.
Any debt solution ought to preserve the basic human rights of the
people and the autonomy and independence of the debtor nation.
Responsibility for the solution ought to be shared equitably by both
creditors and debtor countries, especially by the wealthier segments of their societies;
the burden should not continue to be borne disproportionately by the poor people.
The solution should not increase the debt; generally, less money
going out of the country is better than more money coming in.
Some immediate benefit should be obtained by the debtor country,
especially for poor people.
Criteria established, for adjusting debt should take into account the
extent to which those responsible are accountable to their people and how human rights are
fostered and protected in the debtor country, what the money was borrowed for, how it was
used, what kinds of efforts the country has made or is making to develop as well as repay,
and how the debtor nation proposes to reform its economy, including how to deal with
Any acceptable solution ought to recognize and attempt to relieve
external factors beyond the control of the debtor country which tend to aggravate or
perpetuate the burden -- e.g., interest rates, commodity prices, trade barriers, budged
deficits and geopolitical considerations. The global economy should be managed in the
interest of eciuity and justice; participation of the poor ought to be central test of the
morality of the system.
Proposed solutions ought to enhance the ability of the debtor nation
to pursue independent, self-reliant, particivatory, sustainable development. This
consideration should receive high priority in any judgment as to the countrys
ability to service a discounted debt -- i.e., the amount of debt the country can
reasonably be expected to manage fairly. (312-313).
Again on the 100th Anniversary of Rerum Novarum John Paul II has
written an encyclical Centesimus Annus, that also has concern for the problem of debt.
"At present, the positive efforts which have been made along these lines are being
affected by the still largely unsolved problem of the foreign debt of the poorer
countries. The principle that debts must be paid is certainly just. However, it is not
right to demand or expect payment when the effect would be the imposition of political
choices leading to hunger and despair for entire peoples. It cannot be expected that the
debts which have been contracted should be paid at the price of unbearable sacrifices. In
such cases it is necessary to find -- as in fact is partly happening -- ways to lighten,
defer or even cancel the debt compatible with the fundamental right of peoples to
subsistence and progress" (CA 35.4).
The problem of debt is one of the challenges to live out global justice and solidarity,
the progress and participation of all, the priority of the poors rights to live (cf.
Mueller 1996). By entering the year 2000 we are called to proclaim the Jubilee, the joyful
message to the poor, freedom from all kinds of slavery. Let the Churches become symbols of
Emmanuel, God dwelling among us. God began the good work in Asia, God is now doing good
work in Asia, and God will bring it to completion.
Amaladoss, M.,1997 Life in Preedom. Liberation Theologies from Asia.
Maryknoll. NY. Orbis Books.
Boff, Cludovis and Pixley, George V.,1989 The Bible, the Church and the Poor. Maryknoll.
NY. Orbis Books.
Pieris, Aloysius 1988 An Asian Theology of Liberation. Maryknoll. NY. Orbis Book.
Pieris, Aloysius, 1996, Fire and Water. Basic Issues in Asian Buddhism and Ghristianity.
Maryknoll, NY. Orbis Books.
Giddens, Anthony,1987,Modernity and Identity. Self and Society in the Late Modern Age.
Cambridge. Polity Press & Blackwell Publishers.
Giddens, Anthony,1994 Beyond Left and Right. The Future of Radical Politics. Stanford
Kueng, Hans (Ed.) 19% Yes to a Global Ethic. New York. Continuum.
Kurien, C.T.1997 "Globalization -- What is it about?" In Voices from the Third
World. EATWOT. Vol. XX No.2:15-25.
Mangunwijaya, Y.B.,1998 "Globalisasi adalah Neokolonialisme Ekonomi dan Budaya".
Kompas. 24 Januari 1998.
Mueller, Johannes 1996 "Die internationale Schuldenkrise - em ethische Problem".
In: Ethik in der Wirtschaft: Chancen verantwortlichen Handelns. Hrsg. v. Joerg Becker.
Stuttgart (Kohlhammer): 99-114.
Paul VI, 1967 Populorum Progressio. Encyclical Letter.
Pontifical Justice and Peace Commission, 1987 "An Ethical Approach to the
International Debt Question". In: origins. Vol. 16. No, 34:601,603-611.
U.S. Catholic Conference Administrative Board, 1989 "Relieving Third World Debt: A
Call to Coresponsibility, Justice and Solidarity". In Origins Vol. l9No. 19: 305,
Widyatmadja, Yosef P., 1999 "Beban Hutang, Hak Hidup dan Milenium Pembebasan".
In: Wacana. No. III:127133.
Winters, Jeffrey A.,1999 "Hutang Kriminal, Bank Duma dan Korupsi di Indonesia".
In: Wacana. No. III:90-126.
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),1992 Human Development Report 1992. New York.
Oxford. Oxford University Press.
* Presented as an introduction to discussion at the seminar on "Freedom from
Debt Campaign Training", CCA, Chiang Mai, Thailand, December 1999. The full article
with diagrams can be found on DAGA's website.
U.S. GOVT CLOSES DOWN VENUE OF
FILIPINO-LED FORUM AGAINST IMF-WB
The Peoples Campaign Against Imperialist Globalization (PCAIG)
deplored the U.S. government for causing the closure of a university hall where U.S.-based
Filipinos and other people of color were to hold a symposium in line with the protests
surrounding the Spring Meeting of the International Monetary Fund and World Bank in
The forum titled "Imperialist Globalization: Its Impact on the Environment and Human
Rights" was to be held at George Washington Universitys Corcoran Hall on April
15. Government and school officials announced on April 10 that they were closing the
universiy to outsiders.
The forum, sponsored by Amnesty International, was one of the activities under the
Filipino-led Peoples Assembly Against IMF-WB.
Last year, the PCAIG was also refused a permit to stage a rally in Seattle during the
World Trade Organization summit. However, this did not stop them from pushing through with
the march and joining thousands of others in a historic show of protest against
The closure of George Washington University is among the latest in a string of measures
taken by the U.S. government against protesters now gathering at the U.S. capital. Several
other national and international organizations will be staging teach-ins and marches
reminiscent of last years "shutdown" of the WTO.
FORCED LABOUR PERSIST IN BURMA
ILO applies extraordinary Constitutional procedures
In an action unprecedented in the ILO's 80-year history, the Organization's Governing Body
has set in motion a discussion in its June 2000 Conference, which could result in an
appeal to its other 174 member States to review their relationship with the Government of
Burma and to take appropriate measures to ensure that Burma "cannot take advantage of
such relations to perpetuate or extend the system of forced or compulsory labour"
practised against the country's citizens.
Invoking for the first time article 33 of the ILO Constitution, the Organization's
Governing Body recommended that the International Labour Conference, meeting in Geneva in
June this year, "take such action as it may deem wise and expedient to secure
compliance" by Burma with the recommendations of a 1998 Commission of Inquiry.
Article 33 is designed for use only in the event of a country failing to carry out the
recommendations of an ILO Commission of Inquiry, which is itself a procedure reserved for
grave and persistent violations of international labour standards.
The 1998 Commission concluded that "the obligation to suppress the use of forced or
compulsory labour is violated in Burma in national law as well as in actual practice in a
widespread and systematic manner, with total disregard for the human dignity, safety,
health and basic needs of the people."
An updated report by the ILO Director-General Juan Somavia examined new evidence of the
situation and concluded that an order issued by the Government of Burma on 14 May 1999
does not exclude the imposition of forced labour in violation of the Convention, and
"in actual practice, forced or compulsory labour continues to be imposed in a
widespread manner." It detailed instances of forced labour imposed especially by the
military in contradiction to the Government's assertion that forced labour is never
applied in the country.
These include such activities as forced portering, cultivating food for the army, use of
forced labourers as messengers, sentries, builders and for a variety of other duties,
including harsh work on railroads, canals and other infrastructure development. It also
includes forced sex for the military. Failure to comply with the demands of the military
authorities can and have resulted in the arrest and torture of those resisting.
Proposed measures will ensure future scrutiny of labour practices in Burma within the
ILO's Committee of Experts, its Governing Body and the Conference and - if the country
does not respond to calls for it to cooperate with the ILO - will likely deepen its
isolation within the ILO. An extraordinary Conference resolution adopted in 1999 decreed
that the Government of Burma "should cease to benefit from any technical cooperation
or assistance of the ILO, except for the purpose of direct assistance to implement
immediately the recommendations of the Commission of Inquiry."
The Director-General expressed his hope that "Burma would respond to the urgent
appeal of the Governing Body and immediately take the urgent action necessary to putting
an end to the intolerable practice of forced labour and cooperate with the ILO." He
warned if Burma persists in ignoring the expressed will of the Organization, "the
Governing Body's historic decision opens the way for the Conference to enlist the support
of ILO constituents, the United Nations, governments and international organizations
worldwide to review their dealings with Burma to ensure that by their involvement they are
in no way contributing to the perpetuation of this grievous human rights abuse."
The recent Governing Body decision, which was adopted without vote and was categorically
rejected by the Government Representative of Burma, is the latest in a long series of ILO
findings and efforts to eliminate forced labour in that country. Burma has already been
rebuked by the ILO's supervisory committees on the application of labour standards for
abuse of the Forced Labour Convention on numerous occasions. Last year's Conference
already decreed that "the attitude and behaviour of the Government of Burma are
grossly incompatible with the conditions and principles governing membership of the
Organization," a view that was echoed by a number of speakers at the recent Governing
'Beach' closure proves damage, say
BANGKOK: The Thailand beach featured in Leonardo DiCaprio's movie The
Beach has been closed for restoration, which local authorities say proves their claim the
atoll's environment was damaged in filming, reports said.
"By closing down the beach, the Royal Forestry Department had tacitly admitted that
the environment around the beach had deteriorated because of the controversial movie
production," Krabi Provincial administration chief Somsak Kittithorrakul told the
Maya beach, where the movie was filmed, was closed by the Royal Forestry department
For three years, Somsak led a campaign opposing the shooting of the film on Maya beach.
When 20th Century Fox was granted a licence to shoot on Maya beach, Somsak and other
opponents sued the film company, Thailand's agriculture minister and the Royal Forestry
They claimed Fox was given the go-ahead without the necessary environmental and social
impact studies being carried out. They said the film company ruined the island's fragile
eco-system through alterations designed to paint Maya beach as a paradise island.
They have sought compensation of about 100 million baht ($2.5 mil) in the on-going
Bangladeshi Garment Workers Campaign for
Bangladeshi garments workers have started campaign and action for the
implementation of weekly holiday. In a campaign title GARMENT WORKERS WANT TO LIVE - WE
DEMAND WEEKLY HOLIDAY ON EVERY FRIDAY, National Garments Workers Federation announched the
program through a press conference on 23rd March in its central office.
There are 1.5 million garment workers are working in 2700 garments in Bangladesh, of which
80% are women. Garments cover 76% of the total export of the country and is the highest
profitable industry but has the worst working conditions for workers. Presently, the
minimum wage of the garment workers is TK800 ($16) and avarage wage for the operator is
TK1350 ($28). Workers work 14 to 16 hours a day and 7 days in a week. They also face other
problems such as irregular payment, forced overtime, bad working environment and unjust
***[Weekly holiday is the legal right of the garment workers according to the labour law,
I.L.O convention , Human rights declaration even the country,s contitution. But the
garments owners are not folloing the law. In absence of weekly holiday the workers are in
inhuman condition. They are becoming isolated from their parents, children, families and
societies. On the other hand day by day they becominy sick and going to death. They are
faching serious tipe of deseases .The condition of the women workers are in more danger.
They are not able to give at least one day for their family, children and husband. So a
countable women are Faching devorce by their husband. ]***
National Garments Workers Federation had started the campaign for the weekly holiday in
1995. As a result of this campaign ,in 1997 BGMEA ( Bangladesh Garments Manufacturures and
Exporters Association )had signed 4 points MOU including the weekly holiday with the Trade
union organazations in this sector including the NGWF. But till now BGMEA did not
implemented the 4 points MOU even the weekly holiday.
"disappearances"/Fear of torture or ill-treatment/Fear for safety
AI Index: ASA 21/20/00
3 April 2000
EXTRA 29/00 Possible "disappearances"/Fear of torture or ill-treatment/Fear for
Usman Jalil, 40
Abdullah bin Haji Syamuan, 40
Ibrahim Ismail, 45
Sulaiman Yusuf, 22
Ishak bin Haji Karim, 35
Usman bin Abdullah, 65, farmer
Sulaiman Sabi, 40, farmer
Amnesty International is concerned for the safety of the men named above who are at risk
of being tortured or ill-treated after they were reportedly arrested by the Tentara
Nasional Indonesia (TNI), Indonesian National Army in Aceh on 1 and 2 April 2000.
Usman Jalil, Darman, Abdullah bin Haji Syamuan, Ibrahim Ismail, Abdurrahman, Sulaiman
Yusuf, Ishak bin Haji Karim and one other were reportedly arrested on 1 April during a
sweeping operation to round up members of the armed opposition group, the Gerakan Aceh
Merdeka (GAM) Free Aceh Movement. All are from Menasah Asan village, Simpang Ulim
Sub-district, East Aceh, except for one unnamed man. They are reportedly being held at a
military post in Alue Ie Itam, Julok Sub-district, East Aceh.
Usman bin Abdullah and Sulaiman Sabi, from Deah Temanah village, Trienggadeng
Sub-district, Pidie District, were arrested in the evening of 2 April as they reportedly
drove past some military personnel on their motorbike in Jurang Berangkat. Their arrest
came after two other motorcyclists had apparently just passed by, but had refused to stop
when ordered to do so by the military. The two farmers are reportedly being held either at
the Trienggadeng Koramil or at the Pidie District Military Command (Kodim). The TNI have
confiscated their motorbike.
The human rights situation in Aceh continues to deteriorate with unconfirmed reports that
over 200 people have been killed there this year during military and police
counterinsurgency operations against GAM. Dozens have also been arrested during
"sweeping operations" by the security forces to round up GAM members.
In recent weeks, human rights defenders and humanitarian workers have faced increased
harassment, intimidation and arrests by the security forces.
RECOMMENDED ACTION: Please send telegrams/faxes/express/airmail letters
in Bahasa Indonesia or your own language:
- expressing concern at the reported arrest by the TNI in Aceh of Usman Jalil, Darman,
Abdullah bin Haji Syamuan, Ibrahim Ismail, Abdurrahman, Sulaiman Yusuf, Ishak bin Haji
Karim and one other, and Usman bin Abdullah and Sulaiman Sabi on 1 and 2 April 2000;
- urging the authorities to establish and make public their whereabouts;
- asking that, if they have been arrested, they be released immediately unless they are to
be charged with a recognizably criminal offence;
- urging the authorities to guarantee their safety and ensure that they are given
immediate access to their families, lawyers and any medical treatment they may need;
- calling on the authorities to issue immediate instructions to the security forces to
halt all arbitrary arrests and detentions, torture and ill-treatment,
"disappearances" and unlawful killings.
APPEALS TO (please note that fax numbers to Indonesia are difficult to
get through to):
Major General Affandi
Military Commandar for Aceh
Pangdam I/Bukit Barisan
Markas Besar KODAM I
Telegrams: Major General Affandi, Medan, Indonesia
Salutation: Dear Commander
Minister of Defence and Security
Dr Juwono Sudarsono
Menteri Pertahanan dan Keamanan
Jl. Medan Merdeka Barat No. 13-14
Jakarta Pusat 10110
Telegrams: Menteri Pertahanan dan Keamanan, Jakarta, Indonesia
Faxes: + 62 21 381 4535 / 384 5178
Salutation: Dear Minister
Mr Hasballah M. Saad
State Minister for Human Rights Affairs
Jl Kuningan Timur M 2/5
Faxes: + 62 21 525 0075 / 525 0139
and to diplomatic representatives of Indonesia accredited to your country.
PLEASE SEND APPEALS IMMEDIATELY. Check with the International Secretariat, or
your section office, if sending appeals after 1 May 2000.